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Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2015 Nov;15(11):637-44. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2015.1815.

Congenital Tick Borne Diseases: Is This An Alternative Route of Transmission of Tick-Borne Pathogens In Mammals?

Author information

1
1 Department of Skin Structural Studies, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice , School of Pharmacy with Division of Laboratory Medicine in Sosnowiec, Sosnowiec, Poland .
2
2 University of Silesia in Katowice, Faculty of Computer Science and Material Science, Institute of Material Science , Katowice, Poland .
3
3 Provincial Sanitary and Epidemiological Station in Katowice , Katowice, Poland .
4
4 Department of Animal Histology and Embryology, University of Silesia in Katowice , Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, Katowice, Poland .

Abstract

Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) have become a popular topic in many medical journals. Besides the obvious participation of ticks in the transmission of pathogens that cause TBD, little is written about alternative methods of their spread. An important role is played in this process by mammals, which serve as reservoirs. Transplacental transfer also plays important role in the spread of some TBD etiological agents. Reservoir species take part in the spread of pathogens, a phenomenon that has extreme importance in synanthropic environments. Animals that accompany humans and animals migrating from wild lands to urban areas increase the probability of pathogen infections by ticks This article provides an overview of TBDs, such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and TBDs caused by spirochetes, α-proteobacteria, γ-proteobacteria, and Apicomplexa, with particular attention to reports about their potential to cross the maternal placenta. For each disease, the method of propagation, symptoms of acute and chronic phase, and complications of their course in adults, children, and animals are described in detail. Additional information about transplacental transfer of these pathogens, effects of congenital diseases caused by them, and the possible effects of maternal infection to the fetus are also discussed. The problem of vertical transmission of pathogens presents a new challenge for medicine. Transfer of pathogens through the placenta may lead not only to propagation of diseases in the population, but also constitute a direct threat to health and fetal development. For this reason, the problem of vertical transmission requires more attention and an estimation of the impact of placental transfer for each of listed pathogens.

KEYWORDS:

Congenital diseases; Tick-borne diseases; Transplacental transmission

PMID:
26565770
DOI:
10.1089/vbz.2015.1815
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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