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Muscle Nerve. 2016 Jun;53(6):933-45. doi: 10.1002/mus.24972. Epub 2016 Feb 26.

Heterogeneity of muscle sizes in the lower limbs of children with cerebral palsy.

Author information

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Health System, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 800759, Charlottesville, Virginia, 22908, USA.
2
Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
3
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
4
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Cerebral palsy (CP) is associated with reduced muscle volumes, but previous studies have reported deficits in only a small number of muscles. The extent of volume deficits across lower limb muscles is not known. This study presents an imaging-based assessment of muscle volume and length deficits in 35 lower limb muscles.

METHODS:

We imaged and segmented 35 muscles in 10 subjects with CP and 8 typically developing (TD) controls using MRI. Muscle volumes were normalized, and Z-scores were computed using TD data. Volume Z-scores and percent deficits in volume, length, and cross-sectional area are reported.

RESULTS:

Muscle volumes are 20% lower, on average, for subjects with CP. Volume deficits differ significantly between muscles (12%-43%) and display significant heterogeneity across subjects. Distal muscles, especially the soleus, are commonly and severely small.

CONCLUSIONS:

Heterogeneity across muscles and across subjects reinforces the subject specificity of CP and the need for individualized treatment planning. Muscle Nerve 53: 933-945, 2016.

KEYWORDS:

MRI; cerebral palsy; heterogeneity; lower limb; muscle

PMID:
26565390
DOI:
10.1002/mus.24972
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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