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Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics. 2015 Oct;13(5):321-31. doi: 10.1016/j.gpb.2015.08.004. Epub 2015 Nov 10.

CVTree3 Web Server for Whole-genome-based and Alignment-free Prokaryotic Phylogeny and Taxonomy.

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T-Life Research Center, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.
T-Life Research Center, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China. Electronic address:


A faithful phylogeny and an objective taxonomy for prokaryotes should agree with each other and ultimately follow the genome data. With the number of sequenced genomes reaching tens of thousands, both tree inference and detailed comparison with taxonomy are great challenges. We now provide one solution in the latest Release 3.0 of the alignment-free and whole-genome-based web server CVTree3. The server resides in a cluster of 64 cores and is equipped with an interactive, collapsible, and expandable tree display. It is capable of comparing the tree branching order with prokaryotic classification at all taxonomic ranks from domains down to species and strains. CVTree3 allows for inquiry by taxon names and trial on lineage modifications. In addition, it reports a summary of monophyletic and non-monophyletic taxa at all ranks as well as produces print-quality subtree figures. After giving an overview of retrospective verification of the CVTree approach, the power of the new server is described for the mega-classification of prokaryotes and determination of taxonomic placement of some newly-sequenced genomes. A few discrepancies between CVTree and 16S rRNA analyses are also summarized with regard to possible taxonomic revisions. CVTree3 is freely accessible to all users at without login requirements.


Alignment-free phylogeny; Archaea and Bacteria taxonomy; CVTree; Composition vector; Whole-genome-based tree

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