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Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2015 Dec;16(12):711-26. doi: 10.1038/nrm4084. Epub 2015 Nov 12.

Control of microtubule organization and dynamics: two ends in the limelight.

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Cell Biology, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Laboratory of Biomolecular Research, Department of Biology and Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland.


Microtubules have fundamental roles in many essential biological processes, including cell division and intracellular transport. They assemble and disassemble from their two ends, denoted the plus end and the minus end. Significant advances have been made in our understanding of microtubule plus-end-tracking proteins (+TIPs) such as end-binding protein 1 (EB1), XMAP215, selected kinesins and dynein. By contrast, information on microtubule minus-end-targeting proteins (-TIPs), such as the calmodulin-regulated spectrin-associated proteins (CAMSAPs) and Patronin, has only recently started to emerge. Here, we review our current knowledge of factors, including microtubule-targeting agents, that associate with microtubule ends to control the dynamics and function of microtubules during the cell cycle and development.

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