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AIDS. 2015 Nov 28;29(18):2447-57. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000862.

Once vs. twice-daily lopinavir/ritonavir in HIV-1-infected children.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate whether once daily (q.d.) lopinavir/ritonavir is noninferior to twice daily (b.i.d.) dosing in children.

DESIGN:

International, multicentre, phase II/III, randomized, open-label, noninferiority trial (KONCERT/PENTA18/ANRS150).

SETTING:

Clinical centres participating in the PENTA, HIV-NAT and PHPT networks.

PARTICIPANTS:

Children/adolescents with HIV-1 RNA viral load less than 50 copies/ml for at least 24 weeks on lopinavir/ritonavir-containing antiretroviral therapy.

INTERVENTION:

Children were randomized to continue lopinavir/ritonavir b.i.d. or change to q.d.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:

Confirmed viral load ≥50 copies/ml by 48 weeks (12% noninferiority margin).

RESULTS:

One hundred seventy-three children were randomized in the KONCERT trial (86 q.d., 87 b.i.d.); 46% men, median (IQR) age 11 (9-14) years, CD4% 33 (27-38)%. By week 48, 97 and 98% of time was spent on q.d. and b.i.d., respectively (one q.d. child lost at week 4). Twelve q.d. vs. seven b.i.d. children had confirmed viral load ≥50 copies/ml within 48 weeks; estimated difference in percentage with viral load rebound 6% [90% CI (-2, 14)]. Numbers of children with grade 3/4 adverse events (11 vs. 7) or major resistance mutations (3 vs. 2) were similar, q.d. vs. b.i.d. (both P > 0.3). Among 26 children in an intrasubject lopinavir/ritonavir pharmacokinetic substudy, lower daily exposure (AUC0-24 161 h.mg/l vs. 224 h.mg/l) and lower Clast (1.03 mg/l vs. 5.69 mg/l) were observed with q.d. vs. b.i.d. dosing.

CONCLUSION:

Noninferiority for viral load suppression on q.d. vs. b.i.d. lopinavir/ritonavir was not demonstrated. Although results, therefore, do not support routine use of q.d. lopinavir/ritonavir, lack of safety concerns or resistance suggest that q.d. dosing remains an option in selected, adherent children, with close viral load monitoring.

PMID:
26558544
PMCID:
PMC4645961
DOI:
10.1097/QAD.0000000000000862
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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