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PeerJ. 2015 Oct 1;3:e1292. doi: 10.7717/peerj.1292. eCollection 2015.

Investigation into the effects of antioxidant-rich extract of Tamarindus indica leaf on antioxidant enzyme activities, oxidative stress and gene expression profiles in HepG2 cells.

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Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya , Kuala Lumpur , Malaysia.


The leaf extract of Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica) had been reported to possess high phenolic content and showed high antioxidant activities. In this study, the effects of the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of the T. indica on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, H2O2-induced ROS production and gene expression patterns were investigated in liver HepG2 cells. Lipid peroxidation and ROS production were inhibited and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was enhanced when the cells were treated with the antioxidant-rich leaf extract. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that 207 genes were significantly regulated by at least 1.5-fold (p < 0.05) in cells treated with the antioxidant-rich leaf extract. The expression of KNG1, SERPINC1, SERPIND1, SERPINE1, FGG, FGA, MVK, DHCR24, CYP24A1, ALDH6A1, EPHX1 and LEAP2 were amongst the highly regulated. When the significantly regulated genes were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, "Lipid Metabolism, Small Molecule Biochemistry, Hematological Disease" was the top biological network affected by the leaf extract, with a score of 36. The top predicted canonical pathway affected by the leaf extract was the coagulation system (P < 2.80 × 10(-6)) followed by the superpathway of cholesterol biosynthesis (P < 2.17 × 10(-4)), intrinsic prothrombin pathway (P < 2.92 × 10(-4)), Immune Protection/Antimicrobial Response (P < 2.28 × 10(-3)) and xenobiotic metabolism signaling (P < 2.41 × 10(-3)). The antioxidant-rich leaf extract of T. indica also altered the expression of proteins that are involved in the Coagulation System and the Intrinsic Prothrombin Activation Pathway (KNG1, SERPINE1, FGG), Superpathway of Cholesterol Biosynthesis (MVK), Immune protection/antimicrobial response (IFNGR1, LEAP2, ANXA3 and MX1) and Xenobiotic Metabolism Signaling (ALDH6A1, ADH6). In conclusion, the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of T. indica inhibited lipid peroxidation and ROS production, enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities and significantly regulated the expression of genes and proteins involved with consequential impact on the coagulation system, cholesterol biosynthesis, xenobiotic metabolism signaling and antimicrobial response.


Antioxidant; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA); Gene expression; Ingenuity Pathway Analysis; Tamarindus indica leaf; Western blotting; cDNA microarray; qRT-PCR

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