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Toxins (Basel). 2015 Nov 5;7(11):4595-609. doi: 10.3390/toxins7114595.

Mycotoxigenic fungi and natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) feeds.

Greco M1,2, Pardo A3,4, Pose G5,6.

Author information

1
Laboratorio de Micología Molecular, Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes (UNQ), Roque Sáenz Peña 352, Bernal, Buenos Aires 1876, Argentina. mariana.greco@gmail.com.
2
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Avenida Rivadavia 1917, Buenos Aires 1033, Argentina. mariana.greco@gmail.com.
3
Laboratorio de Micología Molecular, Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes (UNQ), Roque Sáenz Peña 352, Bernal, Buenos Aires 1876, Argentina. apardo@unq.edu.ar.
4
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Avenida Rivadavia 1917, Buenos Aires 1033, Argentina. apardo@unq.edu.ar.
5
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Avenida Rivadavia 1917, Buenos Aires 1033, Argentina. npose@unrn.edu.ar.
6
Escuela de Producción, Tecnología y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Nacional de Río Negro (UNRN), Mitre 331, Villa Regina 8336, Río Negro, Argentina. npose@unrn.edu.ar.

Abstract

Samples of rainbow trout feed were analyzed with the aim to determine the mycobiota composition and the co-occurrence of mycotoxins. A total of 28 samples of finished rainbow trout feed from hatcheries in the provinces of Río Negro and Neuquén, Argentina, were studied. Fungal counts were obtained on three culture media in the ranges of <10 to 4.2 × 10⁴ CFU/g on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC), <10 to 5.1 × 10⁴ CFU/g on Dichloran Chloramphenicol Peptone Agar (DCPA) and <10 to 3.6 × 10⁴ CFU/g on Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG18). The most frequent mycotoxigenic fungi were Eurotium (frequency (Fr) 25.0%), followed by Penicillium (Fr 21.4%) and Aspergillus (Fr 3.6%). The most prevalent mycotoxigenic species were E. repens (Fr 21.4%) and E. rubrum (Fr 14.3%). All samples were contaminated with mycotoxins: 64% samples were contaminated with T-2 toxin (median 70.08 ppb), 50% samples with zearalenone (median 87.97 ppb) and aflatoxins (median 2.82 ppb), 25% with ochratoxin A (median 5.26 ppb) and 3.57% samples with deoxynivalenol (median 230 ppb). Eight samples had a fumonisins contamination level below the limit of detection. Co-occurrence of six mycotoxins was determined in 7% of the samples.

KEYWORDS:

Oncorhynchus mykiss; aquaculture; fish feed; mycobiota; mycotoxins

PMID:
26556374
PMCID:
PMC4663522
DOI:
10.3390/toxins7114595
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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