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Pediatr Nephrol. 2016 Sep;31(9):1383-402. doi: 10.1007/s00467-015-3241-0. Epub 2015 Nov 10.

The non-immunosuppressive management of childhood nephrotic syndrome.

Author information

1
Department of Paediatric Nephrology, Royal Manchester Children's Hospital, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9WL, UK.
2
Institute of Human Development, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
3
Department of Paediatric Nephrology, Royal Manchester Children's Hospital, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9WL, UK. nicholas.webb@cmft.nhs.uk.
4
Institute of Human Development, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. nicholas.webb@cmft.nhs.uk.

Abstract

Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) is one of the most common renal diseases found in the paediatric population and is associated with significant complications, including infection and thrombosis. A high proportion of children enter sustained remission before adulthood, and therapy must therefore mitigate the childhood complications, while minimising the long-term risk to health. Here we address the main complications of INS and summarise the available evidence and guidance to aid the clinician in determining the appropriate treatment for children with INS under their care. Additionally, we highlight areas where no consensus regarding appropriate management has been reached. In this review, we detail the reasons why routine prophylactic antimicrobial and antithrombotic therapy are not warranted in INS and emphasise the conservative management of oedema. When pharmacological intervention is required for the treatment of oedema, we provide guidance to aid the clinician in determining the appropriate therapy. Additionally, we discuss obesity and growth, fracture risk, dyslipidaemia and thyroid dysfunction associated with INS. Where appropriate, we describe how recent developments in research have identified potential novel therapeutic targets.

KEYWORDS:

Dyslipidaemia; Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome; Infection; Oedema; Thrombosis; Vaccination

PMID:
26556028
PMCID:
PMC4943972
DOI:
10.1007/s00467-015-3241-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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