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Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015 Dec 19;370(1684). pii: 20150056. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0056.

Brain evolution by brain pathway duplication.

Author information

1
Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27713, USA Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD 20815, USA chakraborty@neuro.duke.edu.
2
Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27713, USA Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD 20815, USA jarvis@neuro.duke.edu.

Abstract

Understanding the mechanisms of evolution of brain pathways for complex behaviours is still in its infancy. Making further advances requires a deeper understanding of brain homologies, novelties and analogies. It also requires an understanding of how adaptive genetic modifications lead to restructuring of the brain. Recent advances in genomic and molecular biology techniques applied to brain research have provided exciting insights into how complex behaviours are shaped by selection of novel brain pathways and functions of the nervous system. Here, we review and further develop some insights to a new hypothesis on one mechanism that may contribute to nervous system evolution, in particular by brain pathway duplication. Like gene duplication, we propose that whole brain pathways can duplicate and the duplicated pathway diverge to take on new functions. We suggest that one mechanism of brain pathway duplication could be through gene duplication, although other mechanisms are possible. We focus on brain pathways for vocal learning and spoken language in song-learning birds and humans as example systems. This view presents a new framework for future research in our understanding of brain evolution and novel behavioural traits.

KEYWORDS:

brain evolution; brain pathway; duplication; parrots; song systems; speech

PMID:
26554045
PMCID:
PMC4650129
DOI:
10.1098/rstb.2015.0056
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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