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Hum Exp Toxicol. 2016 Sep;35(9):1016-29. doi: 10.1177/0960327115613845. Epub 2015 Nov 9.

Human and experimental toxicology of orellanine.

Author information

1
UCIBIO-REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal Department of Sciences, Institute of Research and Advanced Training in Health Sciences and Technologies (IINFACTS), University Institute of Health Sciences (IUCS), CESPU, CRL, Gandra, Portugal Department of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal ricardinis@med.up.pt.
2
UCIBIO-REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
3
Department of Sciences, Institute of Research and Advanced Training in Health Sciences and Technologies (IINFACTS), University Institute of Health Sciences (IUCS), CESPU, CRL, Gandra, Portugal.

Abstract

Orellanine is a nephrotoxic toxin produced by some mushroom species of the Cortinarius genus, typically found in Europe and North America. The nephrotoxicity of Cortinarius orellanus is well known and was first recognized in the 1950s when this mushroom was identified as the cause of a mass poisoning in Poland. Typically, onset of symptoms is delayed for 1-2 weeks after ingestion. Some patients suffer mild gastrointestinal discomfort in the latency period before developing signs of renal impairment due to severe interstitial nephritis, acute focal tubular damage, and interstitial fibrosis. There is no specific antidote to orellanine poisoning. The mainstay of treatment is the prevention of secondary complications of kidney failure, adequate dialysis and, in the case of incomplete recovery, management of chronic renal insufficiency. : In this work, we aim to review about Cortinarius species, including epidemiological studies, chemical structure, toxicokinetics, toxic doses, mechanisms of toxicity, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment options.

KEYWORDS:

Cortinarius species; nephrotoxicity; orellanine; poisoning; redox cycling

PMID:
26553321
DOI:
10.1177/0960327115613845
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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