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Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015 Aug 15;8(8):12519-28. eCollection 2015.

NOD1 agonist iE-DAP reverses effects of cigarette smoke extract on NOD1 signal pathway in human oral mucosal epithelial cells.

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Department of Oral Medicine, Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University Nanjing 21008, China.
Department of Endodontics, Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University Nanjing 21008, China.


Smoking is a well-known risk factor for many systemic diseases and oral disorders. Smoking has been recognized to cause diminished defense, persistent inflammation and result in disease development. Nucleotide binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) signal pathway plays a key role in innate immune and tissue homeostasis. Our recent studies confirmed that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) could inhibit NOD1 expression and affect expression levels of crucial molecules of NOD1 signaling in oral mucosal epithelial cells. In the present study, immortalized human oral mucosal epithelial (Leuk-1) cells were treated with CSE, iE-DAP (NOD1 agonist), CSE + iE-DAP, respectively. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that iE-DAP triggered NOD1 expression of leuk-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. iE-DAP also reversed the suppressive effect of CSE on NOD1 expression and prevented the overactivation of RIP2 and P-NF-κB following CSE exposure. Real-time PCR and ELISA results confirmed that iE-DAP reversed CSE-mediated effects on the mRNA levels and releases of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and IFN-γ by Leuk-1 cells. Taken together, our results indicated that NOD1 activation with iE-DAP could reverse CSE-mediated effects on NOD1 signaling in human oral mucosal epithelial cells.


Cigarette smoke extract; NOD1 signal pathway; cytokines; iE-DAP; oral mucosal epithelial cells


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