Send to

Choose Destination
Eur J Neurosci. 2016 May;43(10):1286-96. doi: 10.1111/ejn.13126. Epub 2015 Dec 16.

Areas V1 and V2 show microsaccade-related 3-4-Hz covariation in gamma power and frequency.

Author information

Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200, MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Center for Neuroscience, Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Ernst Strüngmann Institute (ESI) for Neuroscience in Cooperation with Max Planck Society, Frankfurt, Germany.


Neuronal gamma-band synchronization (25-80 Hz) in visual cortex appears sustained and stable during prolonged visual stimulation when investigated with conventional averages across trials. However, recent studies in macaque visual cortex have used single-trial analyses to show that both power and frequency of gamma oscillations exhibit substantial moment-by-moment variation. This has raised the question of whether these apparently random variations might limit the functional role of gamma-band synchronization for neural processing. Here, we studied the moment-by-moment variation in gamma oscillation power and frequency, as well as inter-areal gamma synchronization, by simultaneously recording local field potentials in V1 and V2 of two macaque monkeys. We additionally analyzed electrocorticographic V1 data from a third monkey. Our analyses confirm that gamma-band synchronization is not stationary and sustained but undergoes moment-by-moment variations in power and frequency. However, those variations are neither random and nor a possible obstacle to neural communication. Instead, the gamma power and frequency variations are highly structured, shared between areas and shaped by a microsaccade-related 3-4-Hz theta rhythm. Our findings provide experimental support for the suggestion that cross-frequency coupling might structure and facilitate the information flow between brain regions.


electrophysiology; gamma-band response; monkey; saccade; visual system

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center