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J Refract Surg. 2015 Nov;31(11):736-44. doi: 10.3928/1081597X-20151021-02.

Detection of Keratoconus in Clinically and Algorithmically Topographically Normal Fellow Eyes Using Epithelial Thickness Analysis.



To assess the effectiveness of a keratoconus-detection algorithm derived from Artemis very high-frequency (VHF) digital ultrasound (ArcScan Inc., Morrison, CO) epithelial thickness maps in the fellow eye from a series of patients with unilateral keratoconus.


The study included 10 patients with moderate to advanced keratoconus in one eye but a clinically and algorithmically topographically normal fellow eye. VHF digital ultrasound epithelial thickness data were acquired and a previously developed classification model was applied for identification of keratoconus to the clinically normal fellow eyes. Pentacam (Oculus Optikgeräte, Wetzlar, Germany) Belin-Ambrósio Enhanced Ectasia Display "D" score (BAD-D) data (5 of 10 eyes), and Orbscan (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY) SCORE data (9 of 10 eyes) were also evaluated.


Five of the 10 fellow eyes were classified as keratoconic by the VHF digital ultrasound epithelium model. Five of 9 fellow eyes were classified as keratoconic by the SCORE model. For the 5 fellow eyes with Pentacam and VHF digital ultrasound data, one was classified as keratoconic by the VHF digital ultrasound model, one (different) eye by a combined VHF digital ultrasound and Pentacam model, and none by BAD-D alone.


Under the assumption that keratoconus is a bilateral but asymmetric disease, half of the 'normal' fellow eyes could be found to have keratoconus using epithelial thickness maps. The Orbscan SCORE or the combination of topographic BAD-D criteria with epithelial maps did not perform better.

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