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Ann Surg Oncol. 2016 May;23(5):1461-7. doi: 10.1245/s10434-015-4958-5. Epub 2015 Nov 5.

Laparoscopy is Safe and Accurate to Evaluate Peritoneal Surface Metastasis Prior to Cytoreductive Surgery.

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Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.



Completeness of cytoreduction is a significant predictor of long-term outcome after cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Imaging has limited sensitivity to identify peritoneal metastases and therefore predict whether complete cytoreduction is possible. We reviewed our experience using laparoscopy to determine candidates for complete cytoreduction and HIPEC.


This single-center, retrospective study examined patients from 2007 to 2014 who underwent laparoscopy to determine complete cytoreduction (CC-0/1)/HIPEC candidacy. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data were collected.


A total of 145 laparoscopies were performed on 141 patients, 72 (51.1 %) of whom were female, with a median age of 53 years (range 20-79). The primary site was appendiceal in 67 (47.5 %) patients, colorectal in 43 (30.5 %), mesothelioma in 17 (12.1 %), unknown in 9 (6.4 %), small bowel in 3 (2.1 %), gastric in 1, and ovarian in 1 (0.7 % each). Overall, 115 (81.6 %) patients had prior abdominal surgery, 111 (76.6 %) had evidence of disease on imaging, and 117 (80.7 %) underwent prior chemotherapy, with a median of 5.9 weeks between the last treatment and laparoscopy (0.9-498.9 weeks). Four (2.8 %) intraoperative complications were observed (one liver laceration, two enterotomies, and one air embolus), and nine (6.2 %) postoperative complications [four (2.8 %) Clavien grade (CG) I, three (2.8 %) CG II, one (0.7 %) CG III (return to operating room) and one (0.7 %) CG IV (transient ischemic attack)]. Forty-eight patients deemed candidates by laparoscopy underwent CRS/HIPEC (positive predictive value 82.8 %).


Diagnostic laparoscopy is a safe, feasible, and accurate staging tool in patients with suspected peritoneal metastases being considered for CRS.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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