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Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2015 Nov;107(11):659-71. doi: 10.17235/reed.2015.3830/2015.

Role of colonic microbiota in colorectal carcinogenesis: a systematic review.

Author information

1
Physiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Portugal.
2
University of Porto. Portugal. .
3
Portuguese Oncology Institute. Porto, Portugal. .

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIM:

The human colonic mucosa is populated by a wide range of microorganisms, usually in a symbiotic relation with the host. Sometimes this balance is lost and a state of dysbiosis arises, exposing the colon to different metabolic and inflammatory stimuli (according to the microbiota's changing profile). Recent findings lead to hypothesize that this unbalance may create a subclinical pro-inflammatory state that increases DNA mutations and, therefore, colorectal carcinogenesis. In this article we aim to systematically review the scientific evidence regarding colonic microbiota and its role in colorectal carcinogenesis.

METHODS:

Systematic review of PubMed searching results for original articles studying microbiota and colorectal cancer until November 2014.

RESULTS:

Thirty-one original articles studied the role of colon microbiota in colorectal carcinoma including both human and animal studies. Different and heterogeneous methods were used and different bacteria were considered. Nevertheless, some bacteria are consistently augmented (such as Fusobacteria, Alistipes, Porphyromonadaceae, Coriobacteridae, Staphylococcaceae, Akkermansia spp. and Methanobacteriales), while other are constantly diminished in colorectal cancer (such as Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, Faecalibacterium spp., Roseburia, and Treponema). Moreover, bacteria metabolites amino acids are increased and butyrate is decreased throughout colonic carcinogenesis.

CONCLUSION:

Conclusive evidence shows that colorectal carcinogenesis is associated with microbial dysbiosis. This information may be used to create new prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for colorectal cancer.

PMID:
26541655
DOI:
10.17235/reed.2015.3830/2015
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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