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J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2015 Nov 4;17:92. doi: 10.1186/s12968-015-0199-9.

Fast T2 gradient-spin-echo (T2-GraSE) mapping for myocardial edema quantification: first in vivo validation in a porcine model of ischemia/reperfusion.

Author information

1
Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III (CNIC), Madrid, Spain.
2
Hospital Universitario Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain.
3
Philips Healthcare, Madrid, Spain.
4
The Zena and Michael A. Wiener CVI, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
5
Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III (CNIC), Madrid, Spain. bibanez@cnic.es.
6
Department of Cardiology, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria, Fundación Jiménez Díaz Hospital, Madrid, Spain. bibanez@cnic.es.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Several T2-mapping sequences have been recently proposed to quantify myocardial edema by providing T2 relaxation time values. However, no T2-mapping sequence has ever been validated against actual myocardial water content for edema detection. In addition, these T2-mapping sequences are either time-consuming or require specialized software for data acquisition and/or post-processing, factors impeding their routine clinical use. Our objective was to obtain in vivo validation of a sequence for fast and accurate myocardial T2-mapping (T2 gradient-spin-echo [GraSE]) that can be easily integrated in routine protocols.

METHODS:

The study population comprised 25 pigs. Closed-chest 40 min ischemia/reperfusion was performed in 20 pigs. Pigs were sacrificed at 120 min (n = 5), 24 h (n = 5), 4 days (n = 5) and 7 days (n = 5) after reperfusion, and heart tissue extracted for quantification of myocardial water content. For the evaluation of T2 relaxation time, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) scans, including T2 turbo-spin-echo (T2-TSE, reference standard) mapping and T2-GraSE mapping, were performed at baseline and at every follow-up until sacrifice. Five additional pigs were sacrificed after baseline CMR study and served as controls.

RESULTS:

Acquisition of T2-GraSE mapping was significantly (3-fold) faster than conventional T2-TSE mapping. Myocardial T2 relaxation measurements performed by T2-TSE and T2-GraSE mapping demonstrated an almost perfect correlation (R(2) = 0.99) and agreement with no systematic error between techniques. The two T2-mapping sequences showed similarly good correlations with myocardial water content: R(2) = 0.75 and R(2) = 0.73 for T2-TSE and T2-GraSE mapping, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

We present the first in vivo validation of T2-mapping to assess myocardial edema. Given its shorter acquisition time and no requirement for specific software for data acquisition or post-processing, fast T2-GraSE mapping of the myocardium offers an attractive alternative to current CMR sequences for T2 quantification.

PMID:
26538198
PMCID:
PMC4634909
DOI:
10.1186/s12968-015-0199-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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