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J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2015 Nov 4;17:92. doi: 10.1186/s12968-015-0199-9.

Fast T2 gradient-spin-echo (T2-GraSE) mapping for myocardial edema quantification: first in vivo validation in a porcine model of ischemia/reperfusion.

Author information

Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III (CNIC), Madrid, Spain.
Hospital Universitario Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain.
Philips Healthcare, Madrid, Spain.
The Zena and Michael A. Wiener CVI, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III (CNIC), Madrid, Spain.
Department of Cardiology, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria, Fundación Jiménez Díaz Hospital, Madrid, Spain.



Several T2-mapping sequences have been recently proposed to quantify myocardial edema by providing T2 relaxation time values. However, no T2-mapping sequence has ever been validated against actual myocardial water content for edema detection. In addition, these T2-mapping sequences are either time-consuming or require specialized software for data acquisition and/or post-processing, factors impeding their routine clinical use. Our objective was to obtain in vivo validation of a sequence for fast and accurate myocardial T2-mapping (T2 gradient-spin-echo [GraSE]) that can be easily integrated in routine protocols.


The study population comprised 25 pigs. Closed-chest 40 min ischemia/reperfusion was performed in 20 pigs. Pigs were sacrificed at 120 min (n = 5), 24 h (n = 5), 4 days (n = 5) and 7 days (n = 5) after reperfusion, and heart tissue extracted for quantification of myocardial water content. For the evaluation of T2 relaxation time, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) scans, including T2 turbo-spin-echo (T2-TSE, reference standard) mapping and T2-GraSE mapping, were performed at baseline and at every follow-up until sacrifice. Five additional pigs were sacrificed after baseline CMR study and served as controls.


Acquisition of T2-GraSE mapping was significantly (3-fold) faster than conventional T2-TSE mapping. Myocardial T2 relaxation measurements performed by T2-TSE and T2-GraSE mapping demonstrated an almost perfect correlation (R(2) = 0.99) and agreement with no systematic error between techniques. The two T2-mapping sequences showed similarly good correlations with myocardial water content: R(2) = 0.75 and R(2) = 0.73 for T2-TSE and T2-GraSE mapping, respectively.


We present the first in vivo validation of T2-mapping to assess myocardial edema. Given its shorter acquisition time and no requirement for specific software for data acquisition or post-processing, fast T2-GraSE mapping of the myocardium offers an attractive alternative to current CMR sequences for T2 quantification.

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