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Mol Neurobiol. 2016 Nov;53(9):6078-6090. doi: 10.1007/s12035-015-9515-5. Epub 2015 Nov 4.

Mechanisms of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Alzheimer's Disease.

Author information

1
St. Boniface Hospital Research, Winnipeg, MB, R2H 2A6, Canada. chriscadonic@gmail.com.
2
Graduate Program in Biomedical Engineering, Faculties of Health Sciences, Engineering, and Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 5V6, Canada. chriscadonic@gmail.com.
3
St. Boniface Hospital Research, Winnipeg, MB, R2H 2A6, Canada.
4
St. Boniface Hospital Research, Winnipeg, MB, R2H 2A6, Canada. balbensi@sbrc.ca.
5
Graduate Program in Biomedical Engineering, Faculties of Health Sciences, Engineering, and Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 5V6, Canada. balbensi@sbrc.ca.
6
Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3E 0T6, Canada. balbensi@sbrc.ca.

Abstract

Mitochondria are the primary source for energy generation in the cell, which manifests itself in the form of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Nicotinamide dinucleotide (NADH) molecules are the first to enter the so-called electron transport chain or ETC of the mitochondria. The ETC represents a chain of reducing agents organized into four major protein-metal complexes (I-IV) that utilize the flow of electrons to drive the production of ATP. An additional integral protein that is related to oxidative phosphorylation is ATP synthase, referred to as complex V. Complex V carries out ATP synthesis as a result of the electron flow through the ETC. The coupling of electron flow from NADH to molecular oxygen to the production of ATP represents a process known as oxidative phosphorylation. In this review, we describe mainly the bioenergetic properties of mitochondria, such as those found in the ETC that may be altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing evidence points to several mitochondrial functions that are affected in AD. Furthermore, it is becoming apparent that mitochondria are a potential target for treatment in early-stage AD. With growing interest in the mitochondria as a target for AD, it has been hypothesized that deficit in this organelle may be at the heart of the progression of AD itself. The role of mitochondria in AD may be significant and is emerging as a main area of AD research.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer’s disease; Electron transport chain; Mitochondria; Mitochondrial dysfunction; Review

PMID:
26537901
DOI:
10.1007/s12035-015-9515-5
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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