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Obesity (Silver Spring). 2015 Nov;23(11):2190-8. doi: 10.1002/oby.21268.

Effects of carbohydrate quantity and glycemic index on resting metabolic rate and body composition during weight loss.

Author information

  • 1Obesity and Energetics Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
  • 2Lipid Metabolism Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
  • 3Metabolic Research Unit, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the effects of diets varying in carbohydrate and glycemic index (GI) on changes in body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and metabolic adaptation during and after weight loss.

METHODS:

Adults with obesity (n = 91) were randomized to one of four provided-food diets for 17 weeks. Diets differed in percentage energy from carbohydrate (55% or 70%) and GI (low or high) but were matched for protein, fiber, and energy. Body weight, body composition, RMR, and metabolic adaptation (measured RMR-predicted RMR) were measured during weight loss and subsequent weight stability.

RESULTS:

No effect of dietary carbohydrate content or GI on body weight loss or percentage of weight lost as fat mass (FM) was observed. Measured RMR was significantly lower (-226 kJ/day [95% CI: -314 to -138 kJ/day], P < 0.001) than predicted RMR following weight loss, but this difference was attenuated after 5 weeks of weight stability. Metabolic adaptation did not differ by dietary carbohydrate content or GI and was not associated with weight regain 12 months later.

CONCLUSIONS:

Moderate-carbohydrate and low-GI diets did not preferentially reduce FM, preserve lean mass, or attenuate metabolic adaptation during weight loss compared to high-carbohydrate and high-GI diets.

PMID:
26530933
PMCID:
PMC4634125
DOI:
10.1002/oby.21268
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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