Format

Send to

Choose Destination
BMC Evol Biol. 2015 Nov 4;15:240. doi: 10.1186/s12862-015-0512-0.

Computer simulation of human leukocyte antigen genes supports two main routes of colonization by human populations in East Asia.

Author information

1
Department of Genetics and Evolution - Anthropology Unit, Laboratory of Anthropology, Genetics and Peopling history (AGP lab), University of Geneva, 12 rue Gustave-Revilliod, Geneva, CH-1211, Geneva 4, Switzerland. da.di@unige.ch.
2
Department of Genetics and Evolution - Anthropology Unit, Laboratory of Anthropology, Genetics and Peopling history (AGP lab), University of Geneva, 12 rue Gustave-Revilliod, Geneva, CH-1211, Geneva 4, Switzerland. alicia.sanchez-mazas@unige.ch.
3
Institute of Genetics and Genomics in Geneva (IGE3), University of Geneva Medical Centre (CMU), 1 rue Michel-Servet, Geneva, CH-1211, Geneva 4, Switzerland. alicia.sanchez-mazas@unige.ch.
4
Department of Genetics and Evolution - Anthropology Unit, Laboratory of Anthropology, Genetics and Peopling history (AGP lab), University of Geneva, 12 rue Gustave-Revilliod, Geneva, CH-1211, Geneva 4, Switzerland. mathias.currat@unige.ch.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Recent genetic studies have suggested that the colonization of East Asia by modern humans was more complex than a single origin from the South, and that a genetic contribution via a Northern route was probably quite substantial.

RESULTS:

Here we use a spatially-explicit computer simulation approach to investigate the human migration hypotheses of this region based on one-route or two-route models. We test the likelihood of each scenario by using Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) - A, -B, and - DRB1 genetic data of East Asian populations, with both selective and demographic parameters considered. The posterior distribution of each parameter is estimated by an Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) approach.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results strongly support a model with two main routes of colonization of East Asia on both sides of the Himalayas, with distinct demographic histories in Northern and Southern populations, characterized by more isolation in the South. In East Asia, gene flow between populations originating from the two routes probably existed until a remote prehistoric period, explaining the continuous pattern of genetic variation currently observed along the latitude. A significant although dissimilar level of balancing selection acting on the three HLA loci is detected, but its effect on the local genetic patterns appears to be minor compared to those of past demographic events.

PMID:
26530905
PMCID:
PMC4632674
DOI:
10.1186/s12862-015-0512-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for BioMed Central Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center