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J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2015 Dec;44(10):1084-90. doi: 10.1016/j.jgyn.2015.09.029. Epub 2015 Oct 31.

[Breastfeeding (part III): Breastfeeding complications--Guidelines for clinical practice].

[Article in French]

Author information

Service de gynécologie-obstétrique II et médecine de la reproduction, Port-Royal-hôpital Cochin, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), université Paris Descartes, 53, avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France. Electronic address:
Inserm UMR 1153, équipe de recherche en épidémiologie obstétricale, périnatale et pédiatrique (EPOPé), centre de recherche épidémiologie et statistique Sorbonne Paris Cité, DHU risques et grossesse, université Paris Descartes, 75014 Paris, France; École de sages-femmes Baudelocque, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, université Paris Descartes, 75014 Paris, France.



Provide guidelines for management of breastfeeding complications.


Systematically review of the literature between 1972 and May 2015 from the database Medline, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and the international recommendations about inhibition of lactation with establishment of levels of evidence (EL) and grades of recommendation.


Nipple stimulation preparation techniques or antenatal correction an anatomical variation of the nipple are not recommended to decrease nipple complications or improve the success of breastfeeding (grade B). The use of lanolin and application of breast milk may have an interest in diseases of the nipple (EL4). The current published data are insufficient to conclude on the effectiveness of nipple shield, (professional consensus). Manual breast expression or using a breast pump may have an interest in preventing breast engorgement (professional agreement). A bacteriological sample of milk for mastitis is necessary to decide an antibiotic and interrupt breastfeeding with breast infected while continuing its drainage with a breast pump (professional consensus). Incision and drainage of breast abscess are recommended (professional consensus) and iterative puncture is an alternative to surgical drainage in the moderate forms (professional consensus). Breastfeeding is not contraindicated for women with a past history of esthetic breast surgery or breast cancer (professional consensus). There is no scientific justification to recommend the use of breast pumps to improve breastfeeding (grade B). Because of the potential side effects, the use of domperidone and metoclopramide are not recommended in the stimulation of lactation (grade C).


Breastfeeding exposes women to specific complications, which may impede the continuation of breastfeeding. Prevention of mastitis is essential.


Allaitement maternel; Breastfeeding; Complications de l’allaitement; Galactogogue; Insufficient milk; Insuffisance de lait; Lactation complications

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