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J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2015 Dec;44(10):1141-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jgyn.2015.09.023. Epub 2015 Oct 31.

[Postpartum pelvic floor muscle training and abdominal rehabilitation: Guidelines].

[Article in French]

Author information

1
Université Paris-Sud, UMR-S0782, 92140 Clamart, France; Service de gynécologie-obstétrique et médecine de la reproduction, hôpital Antoine-Béclère, AP-HP, 92141 Clamart, France. Electronic address: xavier.deffieux@abc.aphp.fr.
2
Université Paris-Sud, UMR-S0782, 92140 Clamart, France; Service de gynécologie-obstétrique et médecine de la reproduction, hôpital Antoine-Béclère, AP-HP, 92141 Clamart, France.
3
Cabinet de kinésithérapie et rééducation périnéale, rue Raymond-Losserand, 75014 Paris, France.
4
Cabinet de sage-femme et rééducation périnéale, 68, rue des Prairies, 75020 Paris, France.
5
CNRS UMR 7222, Inserm U1150, service de gynécologie-obstétrique, groupe hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, AP-HP, université Paris 06, Sorbonne universités, 75013 Paris, France.
6
Inserm U1153, équipe de recherche en épidémiologie périnatale, obstétricale et pédiatrique (EPOPé), maternité Port-Royal, 53, avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Provide guidelines for clinical practice concerning postpartum rehabilitation.

METHODS:

Systematically review of the literature concerning postpartum pelvic floor muscle training and abdominal rehabilitation.

RESULTS:

Pelvic-floor rehabilitation using pelvic floor muscle contraction exercises is recommended to treat persistent urinary incontinence at 3 months postpartum (grade A), regardless of the type of incontinence. At least 3 guided sessions with a therapist is recommended, associated with pelvic floor muscle exercises at home. This postpartum rehabilitation improves short-term urinary incontinence (1 year) but not long-term (6-12 years). Early pelvic-floor rehabilitation (within 2 months following childbirth) is not recommended (grade C). Postpartum pelvic-floor rehabilitation in women presenting with anal incontinence, is associated with a lower prevalence of anal incontinence symptoms in short-term (1 year) (EL3) but not long-term (6 and 12) (EL3). Postpartum pelvic-floor rehabilitation is recommended to treat anal incontinence (grade C) but results are not maintained in medium or long term. No randomized trials have evaluated the pelvic-floor rehabilitation in asymptomatic women in order to prevent urinary or anal incontinence in medium or long term. It is therefore not recommended (expert consensus). Rehabilitation supervised by a therapist (physiotherapist or midwife) is not associated with better results than simple advice for voluntary contraction of the pelvic floor muscles to prevent/correct, in short term (6 months), a persistent prolapse 6 weeks postpartum (EL2), whether or not with a levator ani avulsion (EL3). Postpartum pelvic-floor rehabilitation is not associated with a decrease in the prevalence of dyspareunia at 1-year follow-up (EL3). Postpartum pelvic-floor rehabilitation guided by a therapist is therefore not recommended to treat or prevent prolapse (grade C) or dyspareunia (grade C). No randomized trials have evaluated the effect of pelvic floor muscle training after an episode of postpartum urinary retention or bladder outlet obstruction symptoms, or for the primary prevention of anal incontinence following third-degree anal sphincter tear or in patients presenting with anal incontinence after third-degree anal sphincter tear. The electrostimulation devices used alone were not assessed in this postpartum context (regardless of symptoms); therefore, isolated pelvic floor electrostimulation is not recommended (expert consensus).

CONCLUSION:

Pelvic floor muscle therapy is recommended for persistent postpartum urinary (grade A) or anal (grade C) incontinence (3 months after delivery).

KEYWORDS:

Anal incontinence; Incontinence anale; Incontinence urinaire; Kinésithérapie; Muscles du plancher pelvien; Pelvic floor muscle; Pelvic floor muscle training; Post-partum; Postpartum; Rehabilitation; Rééducation périnéale; Urinary incontinence

PMID:
26530172
DOI:
10.1016/j.jgyn.2015.09.023
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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