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CA Cancer J Clin. 2016 Jan-Feb;66(1):75-88. doi: 10.3322/caac.21329. Epub 2015 Nov 3.

Translating cancer genomes and transcriptomes for precision oncology.

Roychowdhury S1,2,3, Chinnaiyan AM4,5,6,7,8,9.

Author information

1
Assistant Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.
2
Medical Director, Cancer Genomics Laboratory, Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.
3
Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.
4
Director, Michigan Center for Translational Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI.
5
S. P. Hicks Endowed Professor of Pathology, Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI.
6
American Cancer Society Professor, Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI.
7
Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI.
8
Professor of Urology, Department of Urology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI.
9
Faculty of Center for Computational Medicine and Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Abstract

Understanding the molecular landscape of cancer has facilitated the development of diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers for clinical oncology. Developments in next-generation DNA sequencing technologies have increased the speed and reduced the cost of sequencing the nucleic acids of cancer cells. This has unlocked opportunities to characterize the genomic and transcriptomic landscapes of cancer for basic science research through projects like The Cancer Genome Atlas. The cancer genome includes DNA-based alterations, such as point mutations or gene duplications. The cancer transcriptome involves RNA-based alterations, including changes in messenger RNAs. Together, the genome and transcriptome can provide a comprehensive view of an individual patient's cancer that is beginning to impact real-time clinical decision-making. The authors discuss several opportunities for translating this basic science knowledge into clinical practice, including a molecular classification of cancer, heritable risk of cancer, eligibility for targeted therapies, and the development of innovative, genomic-based clinical trials. In this review, key applications and new directions are outlined for translating the cancer genome and transcriptome into patient care in the clinic.

KEYWORDS:

gene fusion; genomics; neoplasm; patient care; transcriptome

PMID:
26528881
PMCID:
PMC4713245
DOI:
10.3322/caac.21329
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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