Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Exerc Nutrition Biochem. 2015 Sep;19(3):199-209. doi: 10.5717/jenb.2015.15090806. Epub 2015 Sep 30.

Effect of treadmill exercise on PI3K/AKT/mTOR, autophagy, and Tau hyperphosphorylation in the cerebral cortex of NSE/htau23 transgenic mice.

Author information

1
Exercise Biochemistry Laboratory, Korea National Sport University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Neurofibrillary tangles, one of pathological features of Alzheimer's disease, are produced by the hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of tau protein. This study aimed to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise on PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal transmission, autophagy, and cognitive ability that are involved in the hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of tau protein.

METHODS:

Experimental animals (NSE/htau23 mice) were divided into non-transgenic control group (Non-Tg-Control; CON; n = 7), transgenic control group (Tg-CON; n = 7), and transgenic exercise group (Tg-Treadmill Exercise; TE; n = 7). The Tg-TE group was subjected to treadmill exercise for 12 weeks. After the treadmill exercise was completed, the cognitive ability was determined by conducting underwater maze tests. Western blot was conducted to determine the phosphorylation status of PI3K/AKT/mTOR proteins and autophagy-related proteins (Beclin-1, p62, LC3-B); hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of tau protein (Ser199/202, Ser404, Thr231, PHF-1); and phosphorylation of GSK-3β, which is involved in the phosphorylation of tau protein in the cerebral cortex of experimental animals.

RESULTS:

In the Tg-TE group that was subjected to treadmill exercise for 12 weeks, abnormal mTOR phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT proteins was improved via increased phosphorylation and its activity was inhibited by increased GSK-3β phosphorylation compared with those in the Tg-CON group, which was used as the control group. In addition, the expression of Beclin-1 protein involved in autophagosome formation was increased in the Tg-TE group compared with that in the Tg-CON group, whereas that of p62 protein was reduced in the Tg-TE group compared with that in the Tg-CON group. Autophagy was activated owing to the increased expression of LC3-B that controls the completion of autophagosome formation. The hyperphosphorylation and aggregation (Ser199/202, Ser404, Thr231, PHF-1) of tau protein was found to be reduced in the Tg-TE group compared with that in the Tg-CON group. Furthermore, in the underwater maze test, the Tg-TE group showed a reduced escape time and distance compared with those of the Tg-CON group, suggesting that learning and cognitive ability were improved.

CONCLUSION:

These findings suggest that aerobic exercise such as treadmill exercise might be an effective approach to ameliorate the pathological features (or neurofibrillary tangles) of Alzheimer's disease.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer’s disease; PI3K/AKT/smTOR signaling pathway; autophagy; cognitive function; tau hyperphosphorylayion; treadmaill exercise

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center