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Neurologia. 2017 Mar;32(2):99-105. doi: 10.1016/j.nrl.2015.06.013. Epub 2015 Oct 30.

Differential diagnosis and prognosis for longitudinally extensive myelitis in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

[Article in English, Spanish]

Author information

1
Consultorio de Neuroinmunología, Servicio de Neurología, Hospital Dr. Carlos G. Durand, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address: junior.carnero@hotmail.com.
2
Consultorio de Neuroinmunología, Servicio de Neurología, Hospital Dr. Carlos G. Durand, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
3
Servicio de Neurología, Hospital General de Agudos Dr. Teodoro Álvarez, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Longitudinally extensive myelitis (LETM) has classically been grouped with the full or limited neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). However, differential diagnosis reveals a wide range of aetiologies.

OBJECTIVE:

To report on differential diagnosis and prognosis for LETM observed in a group of patients in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

Cross-sectional and retrospective multicentre study in two hospitals in Buenos Aires from June 2008 to June 2014.

INCLUSION CRITERIA:

medullary syndrome associated with spinal cord lesion extending for 3 or more contiguous spinal segments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Clinical, radiological, and biochemical data were collected and subjects were rated on the Hughes functional disability scale (WHFDS) at 3 months.

RESULTS:

We evaluated 27 patients, 74% of whom were women; mean age was 35.22 years. The NMO-IgG antibody test was performed in 66.6% and oligoclonal band testing in 71%. NMO-IgG seropositivity was found exclusively in NMOSD patients (75%). Brain MRI was normal in 59.2% and revealed a mean of 7.9 affected spinal segments. Differential diagnoses revealed NMOSD (37%), idiopathic LETM (22.2%), lupus (11.1%), tumour (11.1%), dural fistula (7.4%), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (7.4%), and a single case of multiple sclerosis (3.7%). Patients with lesions to ≥ 7 spinal segments showed poor recovery at 3 months (P<.001); these cases were associated with neoplastic, vascular, idiopathic, and lupus-related aetiologies.

CONCLUSIONS:

The most frequent causes of LETM in our cohort were NMOSD followed by idiopathic cases. Neoplastic, vascular, lupus-related, and idiopathic LETM may constitute a critical group with a distinct prognosis and other treatment needs.

KEYWORDS:

Anticuerpo antiaquaporina-4; Aquoporin-4 antibody; Diagnósticos diferenciales; Differential diagnosis; Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis; Mielitis transversa longitudinal extensa; Neuromielitis óptica; Neuromyelitis optica; Prognosis; Pronóstico

PMID:
26526674
DOI:
10.1016/j.nrl.2015.06.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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