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Gene. 2016 Jan 15;576(1 Pt 3):385-94. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2015.10.052. Epub 2015 Oct 23.

TNNI1, TNNI2 and TNNI3: Evolution, regulation, and protein structure-function relationships.

Author information

1
Department of Physiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.
2
Department of Physiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA. Electronic address: jjin@med.wayne.edu.

Abstract

Troponin I (TnI) is the inhibitory subunit of the troponin complex in the sarcomeric thin filament of striated muscle and plays a central role in the calcium regulation of contraction and relaxation. Vertebrate TnI has evolved into three isoforms encoded by three homologous genes: TNNI1 for slow skeletal muscle TnI, TNNI2 for fast skeletal muscle TnI and TNNI3 for cardiac TnI, which are expressed under muscle type-specific and developmental regulations. To summarize the current knowledge on the TnI isoform genes and products, this review focuses on the evolution, gene regulation, posttranslational modifications, and structure-function relationship of TnI isoform proteins. Their physiological and medical significances are also discussed.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiac and skeletal muscle; Evolution; Gene regulation; Isoform; Posttranslational modification; Troponin I

PMID:
26526134
PMCID:
PMC5798203
DOI:
10.1016/j.gene.2015.10.052
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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