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Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015 Dec 4-11;468(1-2):331-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.10.100. Epub 2015 Oct 23.

Affinity of the heparin binding motif of Noggin1 to heparan sulfate and its visualization in the embryonic tissues.

Author information

1
Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117997, Russia; Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 1/40, 119991 Moscow, Russia. Electronic address: comconadin@gmail.com.
2
Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117997, Russia.
3
Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 1/40, 119991 Moscow, Russia.
4
Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117997, Russia. Electronic address: azaraisky@yahoo.com.

Abstract

Heparin binding motifs were found in many secreted proteins and it was suggested that they are responsible for retardation of the protein diffusion within the intercellular space due to the binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycanes (HSPG). Here we used synthetic FITC labeled heparin binding motif (HBM peptide) of the Xenopus laevis secreted BMP inhibitor Noggin1 to study its diffusion along the surface of the heparin beads by FRAP method. As a result, we have found out that diffusivity of HBM-labeled FITC was indeed much lesser than those predicted by theoretical calculations even for whole protein of the Noggin size. We also compared by isothermal titration calorimetry the binding affinity of HBM and the control oligolysine peptide to several natural polyanions including heparan sulfate (HS), heparin, the bacterial dextran sulfate and salmon sperm DNA, and demonstrated that HBM significantly exceeds oligolysine peptide in the affinity to HS, heparin and DNA. By contrast, oligolysine peptide bound with higher affinity to dextran sulfate. We speculate that such a difference may ensure specificity of the morphogen binding to HSPG and could be explained by steric constrains imposed by different distribution of the negative charges along a given polymeric molecule. Finally, by using EGFP-HBM recombinant protein we have visualized the natural pattern of the Noggin1 binding sites within the X. laevis gastrula and demonstrated that these sites forms a dorsal-ventral concentration gradient, with a maximum in the dorsal blastopore lip. In sum, our data provide a quantitative basis for modeling the process of Noggin1 diffusion in embryonic tissues, considering its interaction with HSPG.

KEYWORDS:

FRAP; Heparan sulfate; Heparin; Isothermal titration calorimetry; Morphogen; Noggin; Poly-l-lysine; Protein diffusion; Xenopus laevis

PMID:
26525852
DOI:
10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.10.100
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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