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Acta Trop. 2016 Feb;154:1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.10.008. Epub 2015 Oct 30.

Giardia duodenalis in Damascus, Syria: Identification of Giardia genotypes in a sample of human fecal isolates using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyzing method.

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Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.
Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria. Electronic address:


Giardia duodenalis is a common gastrointestinal parasite that infects humans and many other mammals. It is most prevalent in many developing and industrialized countries. G. duodenalis is considered to be a complex species. While no morphological distinction among different assemblages exist, it can be genetically differentiated into eight major assemblages: A to H. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic heterogeneity of G. duodenalis in human isolates (a study conducted for the first time in Syria). 40 fecal samples were collected from three different hospitals during the hot summer season of 2014. Extraction of genomic DNA from all Giardia positive samples (based on a microscopic examination) was performed using QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit. β-giardin gene was used to differentiate between different Giardia assemblages. The 514 bp fragment was amplified using the Polymerase Chain Reaction method, followed by digestion in HaeIII restriction enzyme. Our result showed that genotype A was more frequent than genotype B, 27/40 (67.5%); 4/40 (10%) respectively. A mixed genotype of A+B was only detected in 9 isolates (22.5%). This is the first molecular study performed on G. duodenalis isolates in Syria in order to discriminate among the different genotypes. Further expanded studies using more genes are needed to detect and identify the Giardia parasite at the level of assemblage and sub-assemblage.


Assemblage; Genotype; Giardia duodenalis; PCR-RFLP; β-gardin

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