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Nat Genet. 2015 Dec;47(12):1385-92. doi: 10.1038/ng.3431. Epub 2015 Nov 2.

Contrasting genetic architectures of schizophrenia and other complex diseases using fast variance-components analysis.

Collaborators (308)

Ripke S, Neale BM, Corvin A, Walters JT, Farh KH, Holmans PA, Lee P, Bulik-Sullivan B, Collier DA, Huang H, Pers TH, Agartz I, Agerbo E, Albus M, Alexander M, Amin F, Bacanu SA, Begemann M, Belliveau RA Jr, Bene J, Bergen SE, Bevilacqua E, Bigdeli TB, Black DW, Børglum AD, Bruggeman R, Buccola NG, Buckner RL, Byerley W, Cahn W, Cai G, Campion D, Cantor RM, Carr VJ, Carrera N, Catts SV, Chambert KD, Chan RC, Chen RY, Chen EY, Cheng W, Cheung EF, Chong SA, Cloninger C, Cohen D, Cohen N, Cormican P, Craddock N, Crowley JJ, Curtis D, Davidson M, Davis KL, Degenhardt F, Del Favero J, DeLisi LE, Demontis D, Dikeos D, Dinan T, Djurovic S, Donohoe G, Drapeau E, Duan J, Dudbridge F, Durmishi N, Eichhammer P, Eriksson J, Escott-Price V, Essioux L, Fanous AH, Farrell MS, Frank J, Franke L, Freedman R, Freimer NB, Friedl M, Friedman JI, Fromer M, Genovese G, Georgieva L, Gershon ES, Giegling I, Giusti-Rodríguez P, Godard S, Goldstein JI, Golimbet V, Gopal S, Gratten J, Grove J, de Haan L, Hammer C, Hamshere ML, Hansen M, Hansen T, Haroutunian V, Hartmann AM, Henskens FA, Herms S, Hirschhorn JN, Hoffmann P, Hofman A, Hollegaard MV, Hougaard DM, Ikeda M, Joa I, Julìa A, Kahn RS, Kalaydjieva L, Karachanak-Yankova S, Karjalainen J, Kavanagh D, Keller MC, Kelly BJ, Kennedy JL, Khrunin A, Kim Y, Klovins J, Knowles JA, Konte B, Kucinskas V, Kucinskiene ZA, Kuzelova-Ptackova H, Kähler AK, Laurent C, Keong JL, Lee S, Legge SE, Lerer B, Li M, Li T, Liang KY, Lieberman J, Limborska S, Loughland CM, Lubinski J, Lönnqvist J, Macek M Jr, Magnusson PK, Maher BS, Maier W, Mallet J, Marsal S, Mattheisen M, Mattingsdal M, McCarley RW, McDonald C, McIntosh AM, Meier S, Meijer CJ, Melegh B, Melle I, Mesholam-Gately RI, Metspalu A, Michie PT, Milani L, Milanova V, Mokrab Y, Morris DW, Mors O, Mortensen PB, Murphy KC, Murray RM, Myin-Germeys I, Müller-Myhsok B, Nelis M, Nenadic I, Nertney DA, Nestadt G, Nicodemus KK, Nikitina-Zake L, Nisenbaum L, Nordin A, O'Callaghan E, O'Dushlaine C, O'Neill F, Oh SY, Olincy A, Olsen L, Os JV, Pantelis C, Papadimitriou GN, Papiol S, Parkhomenko E, Pato MT, Paunio T, Pejovic-Milovancevic M, Perkins DO, Pietiläinen O, Pimm J, Pocklington AJ, Powell J, Price A, Pulver AE, Purcell SM, Quested D, Rasmussen HB, Reichenberg A, Reimers MA, Richards AL, Roffman JL, Roussos P, Ruderfer DM, Salomaa V, Sanders AR, Schall U, Schubert CR, Schulze TG, Schwab SG, Scolnick EM, Scott RJ, Seidman LJ, Shi J, Sigurdsson E, Silagadze T, Silverman JM, Sim K, Slominsky P, Smoller JW, So HC, Spencer CC, Stahl EA, Stefansson H, Steinberg S, Stogmann E, Straub RE, Strengman E, Strohmaier J, Stroup T, Subramaniam M, Suvisaari J, Svrakic DM, Szatkiewicz JP, Söderman E, Thirumalai S, Toncheva D, Tooney PA, Tosato S, Veijola J, Waddington J, Walsh D, Wang D, Wang Q, Webb BT, Weiser M, Wildenauer DB, Williams NM, Williams S, Witt SH, Wolen AR, Wong EH, Wormley BK, Wu JQ, Xi HS, Zai CC, Zheng X, Zimprich F, Wray NR, Stefansson K, Visscher PM, Adolfsson R, Andreassen OA, Blackwood DH, Bramon E, Buxbaum JD, Børglum AD, Cichon S, Darvasi A, Domenici E, Ehrenreich H, Esko T, Gejman PV, Gill M, Gurling H, Hultman CM, Iwata N, Jablensky AV, Jönsson EG, Kendler KS, Kirov G, Knight J, Lencz T, Levinson DF, Li QS, Liu J, Malhotra AK, McCarroll SA, McQuillin A, Moran JL, Mortensen PB, Mowry BJ, Nöthen MM, Ophoff RA, Owen MJ, Palotie A, Pato CN, Petryshen TL, Posthuma D, Rietschel M, Riley BP, Rujescu D, Sham PC, Sklar P, Clair DS, Weinberger DR, Wendland JR, Werge T, Daly MJ, Sullivan PF, O'Donovan MC.

Author information

1
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
2
Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
3
Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
4
Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
5
Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
6
Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
7
Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
8
School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia.
9
Department of Psychiatry and Human Genetics, Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA.
10
Medical Research Council (MRC) Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Institute of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

Abstract

Heritability analyses of genome-wide association study (GWAS) cohorts have yielded important insights into complex disease architecture, and increasing sample sizes hold the promise of further discoveries. Here we analyze the genetic architectures of schizophrenia in 49,806 samples from the PGC and nine complex diseases in 54,734 samples from the GERA cohort. For schizophrenia, we infer an overwhelmingly polygenic disease architecture in which ≥71% of 1-Mb genomic regions harbor ≥1 variant influencing schizophrenia risk. We also observe significant enrichment of heritability in GC-rich regions and in higher-frequency SNPs for both schizophrenia and GERA diseases. In bivariate analyses, we observe significant genetic correlations (ranging from 0.18 to 0.85) for several pairs of GERA diseases; genetic correlations were on average 1.3 tunes stronger than the correlations of overall disease liabilities. To accomplish these analyses, we developed a fast algorithm for multicomponent, multi-trait variance-components analysis that overcomes prior computational barriers that made such analyses intractable at this scale.

PMID:
26523775
PMCID:
PMC4666835
DOI:
10.1038/ng.3431
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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