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J Atheroscler Thromb. 2016;23(3):257-65. doi: 10.5551/jat.31047. Epub 2015 Oct 30.

Roles of the Androgen--Androgen Receptor System in Vascular Angiogenesis.

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Department of Hematology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School.


Although many clinical studies have shown that a low testosterone level is associated with cardiovascular diseases, the role of androgens in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology remains controversial. Androgens exert various actions in their target organs, and the androgen receptor (AR) is widely distributed in several tissues, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts, in the vascular system. Biological activities of androgens are predominantly mediated through the AR by the transcriptional control of target genes and interaction with multiple signaling pathways. To clarify the molecular mechanisms of androgens in cardiovascular disease, we examined a pathological model using AR knockout mice and showed that the androgen-AR system has protective effects on cardiovascular remodeling against cardiovascular stress. In this review, we focus on the role of the androgen-AR system in angiogenesis after ischemic stress.

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