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Infect Genet Evol. 2016 Jan;37:64-9. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2015.10.029. Epub 2015 Oct 29.

Type-specific PCR assays for Babesia bovis msa-1 genotypes in Asia: Revisiting the genetic diversity in Sri Lanka, Mongolia, and Vietnam.

Author information

1
National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Japan; Veterinary Research Institute, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
2
Veterinary Research Institute, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
3
Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
4
Institute of Biotechnology, Hue University, Hue, Vietnam.
5
National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Japan.
6
National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Japan. Electronic address: yokoyama@obihiro.ac.jp.

Abstract

Babesia bovis is the most virulent Babesia organism, resulting in a high mortality rate in cattle. The genetic diversity of B. bovis merozoite surface antigens (MSAs), such as MSA-1, MSA-2b, and MSA-2c, might be linked to altered immune profiles in the host animals. The present study aimed to develop type-specific PCR assays for Asian msa-1 genotypes, thereby re-analyzing the genetic diversity of msa-1 in Sri Lanka, Mongolia, and Vietnam. Specific primers were designed for nine Asian msa-1 genotypes, which had been detected based on the phylogeny constructed using msa-1 gene sequences retrieved from the GenBank database. Specificity of the type-specific PCR assays was confirmed using plasmids containing the inserts of msa-1 gene fragments that represent Asian genotypes. Furthermore, no amplicons were observed by these PCR assays when DNA samples of Babesia bigemina, Babesia ovata, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis, Trypanosoma evansi, Trypanosoma theileri, Anaplasma marginale, and Anaplasma bovis, and non-infected bovine blood were analyzed. In total, 109 B. bovis-positive blood DNA samples sourced from Sri Lanka (44 cattle), Mongolia (26 cattle), and Vietnam (23 cattle and 16 water buffaloes) were then screened by the type-specific PCR assays. The sequences derived from all of the PCR amplicons were phylogenetically analyzed. Out of 109 DNA samples, 23 (20 from cattle and 3 from water buffaloes) were positive for at least one genotype. In agreement with previous studies, five and four different genotypes were detected among the DNA samples from Sri Lanka and Vietnam, respectively. In contrast, four genotypes, including three novel genotypes, were detected from Mongolia. Five DNA samples were found to be co-infected with multiple genotypes. The sequences of the PCR amplicons clustered phylogenetically within the corresponding clades. These findings indicated that the type-specific PCR assays described herein are useful for the determination of genotypic diversity of the B. bovis msa-1 gene in Asia.

KEYWORDS:

Asia; Babesia bovis; Genetic diversity; Type-specific PCR; msa-1

PMID:
26520797
DOI:
10.1016/j.meegid.2015.10.029
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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