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Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 Jan;60(1):223-34. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201500620. Epub 2015 Nov 23.

Coffee, tea, caffeine and risk of depression: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies.

Author information

1
Integrated Cancer Registry of Catania-Messina-Siracusa-Enna, Catania, Italy.
2
Department of Epidemiology and Population Studies, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.
3
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Section of Pharmacology and Biochemistry, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Abstract

SCOPE:

The aim of the study was to systematically review and analyze results from observational studies on coffee, caffeine, and tea consumption and association or risk of depression.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

Embase and PubMed databases were searched from inception to June 2015 for observational studies reporting the odds ratios or relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of depression by coffee/tea/caffeine consumption. Random effects models, subgroup analyses, and dose-response analyses were performed. Twelve studies with 23 datasets were included in the meta-analysis, accounting for a total of 346 913 individuals and 8146 cases of depression. Compared to individuals with lower coffee consumption, those with higher intakes had pooled RR of depression of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.91). Dose-response effect suggests a nonlinear J-shaped relation between coffee consumption and risk of depression with a peak of protective effect for 400 mL/day. A borderline nonsignificant association between tea consumption and risk of depression was found (RR 0.70, 95% CI: 0.48, 1.01), while significant results were found only for analysis of prospective studies regarding caffeine consumption (RR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.93).

CONCLUSION:

This study suggests a protective effect of coffee and, partially, of tea and caffeine on risk of depression.

KEYWORDS:

Caffeine; Coffee; Depression; Meta-analysis; Tea

PMID:
26518745
DOI:
10.1002/mnfr.201500620
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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