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Metab Brain Dis. 2016 Apr;31(2):337-45. doi: 10.1007/s11011-015-9755-0. Epub 2015 Oct 31.

Carnosine and taurine treatments diminished brain oxidative stress and apoptosis in D-galactose aging model.

Author information

1
Department of Biochemistry, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
2
Department of Biochemistry, Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey.
3
Department of Pathology, Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey.
4
Department of Biochemistry, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey. m.mujdatuysal@hotmail.com.

Abstract

D-galactose (GAL) has been used as an animal model for brain aging and antiaging studies. GAL stimulates oxidative stress in several tissues including brain. Carnosine (CAR; β-alanil-L-histidine) and taurine (TAU; 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) exhibit antioxidant properties. CAR and TAU have anti-aging and neuroprotective effects. We investigated the effect of CAR and TAU supplementations on oxidative stress and brain damage in GAL-treated rats. Rats received GAL (300 mg/kg; s.c.; 5 days per week) alone or together with CAR (250 mg/kg/daily; i.p.; 5 days per week) or TAU (2.5% w/w; in rat chow) for 2 months. Brain malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were determined. Expressions of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bax and caspase-3 were also evaluated in the brains by immunohistochemistry. GAL treatment increased brain MDA and PC levels and AChE activities. It decreased significantly brain GSH levels, SOD and GSH-Px but not GST activities. GAL treatment caused histopathological changes and increased apoptosis. CAR and TAU significantly reduced brain AChE activities, MDA and PC levels and elevated GSH levels in GAL-treated rats. CAR, but not TAU, significantly increased low activities of SOD and GSH-Px. Both CAR and TAU diminished apoptosis and ameliorated histopathological findings in the brain of GAL-treated rats. Our results indicate that CAR and TAU may be effective to prevent the development of oxidative stress, apoptosis and histopathological deterioration in the brain of GAL-treated rats.

KEYWORDS:

Brain; Carnosine; D-Galactose; Oxidative stress; Taurine

PMID:
26518192
DOI:
10.1007/s11011-015-9755-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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