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Chemosphere. 2016 Feb;144:1618-23. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.10.023. Epub 2015 Oct 28.

N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation during ozonation of wastewater and water treatment polymers.

Author information

1
Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania, Italy; Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, 1133 E. James E. Rogers Way, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.
2
United Water, Edward C. Little Water Reclamation Facility, 1935 South Hughes Way, El Segundo, CA 90245, USA.
3
Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, 1133 E. James E. Rogers Way, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA; National University of Singapore, NUS Environmental Research Institute (NERI), 5A Engineering Drive 1, T-Lab Building, #02-01, Singapore 117411, Singapore. Electronic address: snyders2@email.arizona.edu.

Abstract

N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation by ozonation was investigated in the effluents of four different wastewater treatment plants destined for alternative reuse. Very high levels of NDMA formation were observed in wastewaters from treatment plants non operating with biological nitrogen removal. Selected experiments showed that hydroxyl radical did not have a significant role in NDMA formation during ozonation of wastewater. Furthermore, ozonation of three different polymers used for water treatment, including polyDADMAC, anionic polyacrylamide, and cationic polyacrylamide, spiked in wastewater did not increase the NDMA formation. Effluent organic matter (EfOM) likely reduced the availability of ozone in water able to react with polymers and quenched the produced ·OH radicals which limited polymer degradation and subsequent NDMA production. Excellent correlations were observed between NDMA formation, UV absorbance at 254 nm, and total fluorescence reduction. These data provide evidence that UV and fluorescence surrogates could be used for monitoring and/or controlling NDMA formation during ozonation.

KEYWORDS:

Fluorescence; Hydroxyl radical; Nitrification; Polyacrylamide; UV absorbance; polyDADMAC

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