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Mol Cancer Ther. 2015 Dec;14(12):2722-34. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-15-0348. Epub 2015 Oct 29.

Silibinin Preferentially Radiosensitizes Prostate Cancer by Inhibiting DNA Repair Signaling.

Author information

1
Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India. School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.
2
School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado.
4
Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India. School of Life Sciences, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, India. ranaps@hotmail.com.

Abstract

Radiotherapy, a frequent mode of cancer treatment, is often restricted by dose-related toxicity and development of therapeutic resistance. To develop a novel and selective radiosensitizer, we studied the radiosensitizing effects and associated mechanisms of silibinin in prostate cancer. The radiosensitizing effect of silibinin with ionizing radiation (IR) was assessed on radioresistant prostate cancer cell lines by clonogenic, cell cycle, cell death, and DNA repair assays. Tumor xenograft growth, immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of tumor tissues, and toxicity-related parameters were measured in vivo. Silibinin (25 μmol/L) enhanced IR (2.5-10 Gy)-caused inhibition (up to 96%, P < 0.001) of colony formation selectively in prostate cancer cells, and prolonged and enhanced IR-caused G2-M arrest, apoptosis, and ROS production. Mechanistically, silibinin inhibited IR-induced DNA repair (ATM and Chk1/2) and EGFR signaling and attenuated the levels of antiapoptotic proteins. Specifically, silibinin suppressed IR-induced nuclear translocation of EGFR and DNA-PK, an important mediator of DSB repair, leading to an increased number of γ-H2AX (ser139) foci suggesting lesser DNA repair. In vivo, silibinin strongly radiosensitized DU145 tumor xenograft inhibition (84%, P < 0.01) with higher apoptotic response (10-fold, P < 0.01) and reduced repair of DNA damage, and rescued the mice from IR-induced toxicity and hematopoietic injury. Overall, silibinin enhanced the radiotherapeutic response via suppressing IR-induced prosurvival signaling and DSB repair by inhibiting nuclear translocation of EGFR and DNA-PK. Because silibinin is already in phase II clinical trial for prostate cancer patients, the present finding has translational relevance for radioresistant prostate cancer.

PMID:
26516160
PMCID:
PMC4674330
DOI:
10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-15-0348
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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