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Toxicology. 2015 Dec 2;338:104-16. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2015.10.008. Epub 2015 Nov 11.

Cadmium induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression via ROS-dependent EGFR, NF-кB, and AP-1 pathways in human endothelial cells.

Author information

1
Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 501-190, Republic of Korea.
2
Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 501-190, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: ydjung@chonnam.ac.kr.

Abstract

Cadmium (Cd), a widespread cumulative pollutant, is a known human carcinogen, associated with inflammation and tumors. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a pivotal role in tumor metastasis; however, the mechanisms underlying the MMP-9 expression induced by Cd remain obscure in human endothelial cells. Here, Cd elevated MMP-9 expression in dose- and time-dependent manners in human endothelial cells. Cd increased ROS production and the ROS-producing NADPH oxidase. Cd translocates p47(phox), a key subunit of NADPH oxidase, to the cell membrane. Cd also activated the phosphorylation of EGFR, Akt, Erk1/2, and JNK1/2 in addition to promoting NF-кB and AP-1 binding activities. Specific inhibitor and mutagenesis studies showed that EGFR, Akt, Erk1/2, JNK1/2 and transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1 were related to Cd-induced MMP-9 expression in endothelial cells. Akt, Erk1/2, and JNK1/2 functioned as upstream signals in the activation of NF-κB and AP-1, respectively. In addition, N-acetyl-l-cystein (NAC), diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) and apocynin (APO) inhibited the Cd-induced activation of EGFR, Akt, Erk1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 MAPK, indicating that ROS production by NADPH oxidase is the furthest upstream signal in MMP-9 expression. At present, it states that Cd displayed marked invasiveness in ECV304 cells, which was partially abrogated by MMP-9 neutralizing antibodies. These results demonstrated that Cd induces MMP-9 expression via ROS-dependent EGFR->Erk1/2, JNK1/2->AP-1 and EGFR->Akt->NF-κB signaling pathways and, in turn, stimulates invasiveness in human endothelial cells.

KEYWORDS:

Cadmium; Cell invasion; Endothelial cells; MMP-9

PMID:
26514923
DOI:
10.1016/j.tox.2015.10.008
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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