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Annu Rev Biomed Eng. 2015;17:415-45. doi: 10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071114-040554. Epub 2015 Oct 22.

Coherent Raman Scattering Microscopy in Biology and Medicine.

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Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907; email:


Advancements in coherent Raman scattering (CRS) microscopy have enabled label-free visualization and analysis of functional, endogenous biomolecules in living systems. When compared with spontaneous Raman microscopy, a key advantage of CRS microscopy is the dramatic improvement in imaging speed, which gives rise to real-time vibrational imaging of live biological samples. Using molecular vibrational signatures, recently developed hyperspectral CRS microscopy has improved the readout of chemical information available from CRS images. In this article, we review recent achievements in CRS microscopy, focusing on the theory of the CRS signal-to-noise ratio, imaging speed, technical developments, and applications of CRS imaging in bioscience and clinical settings. In addition, we present possible future directions that the use of this technology may take.


Raman scattering; biomedical imaging; clinical setting; multimodal imaging; vibrational spectroscopy

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