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J Assoc Off Anal Chem. 1989 Mar-Apr;72(2):223-30.

Worldwide occurrence of mycotoxins in foods and feeds--an update.

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1
Food and Drug Administration, Division of Contaminants Chemistry, Washington, DC 20204.

Abstract

In a review presented at the first FAO/WHO/UNEP Conference on Mycotoxins in 1977, the occurrence of aflatoxins, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, citrinin, trichothecenes, patulin, penicillic acid, and the ergot alkaloids was indicated to be significant in naturally contaminated foods and feeds. The information presented on aflatoxin contamination greatly exceeded that for all other mycotoxins combined. This study reviews the worldwide levels and occurrence of mycotoxins in various commodities since 1976. Comparatively few countries have lowered the acceptable levels for aflatoxins in susceptible commodities. However, intensified efforts are needed to establish control of aflatoxin levels in the global food supply, particularly in peanuts, tree nuts, corn, and animal feeds. Extensive deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination of grains, especially wheat, was demonstrated. Co-contamination of grains by Fusarium toxins, especially DON and nivalenol, with zearalenone to a lesser extent, was reported. However, more information on co-occurrence of Fusarium toxins in cereals should be developed. When contamination of feeds by ochratoxin A was significant, this toxin occurred in swine kidney and smoked meats in high levels. On the basis of occurrence and/or toxicity, patulin and penicillic acid contamination of foods does not appear to be of real concern. More recent developments suggest, however, that expanded monitoring studies of Alternaria toxins, moniliformin, citrinin, cyclopiazonic acid, penitrem A, and ergot alkaloids are indicated.

PMID:
2651391
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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