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J Viral Hepat. 2015 Dec;22 Suppl 4:4-20. doi: 10.1111/jvh.12475.

Historical epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in select countries - volume 3.

Liakina V1,2, Hamid S3, Tanaka J4, Olafsson S5, Sharara AI6, Alavian SM7,8, Gheorghe L9, El Hassan ES10, Abaalkhail F11, Abbas Z12, Abdou A10, Abourached A13, Al Braiki F14, Al Hosani F15, Al Jaberi K16, Al Khatry M17, Al Mulla MA15, Al Quraishi H18, Al Rifai A19, Al Serkal Y20, Alam A21, Alashgar HI22, Alawadhi S10, Al-Dabal L23, Aldins P24, Alfaleh FZ25, Alghamdi AS26, Al-Hakeem R27, Aljumah AA28, Almessabi A14, Alqutub AN26, Alswat KA29, Altraif I28, Alzaabi M30, Andrea N31, Assiri AM27, Babatin MA26, Baqir A32, Barakat MT33, Bergmann OM5, Bizri AR34, Blach S35, Chaudhry A36, Choi MS37, Diab T38, Djauzi S39, El Khoury S40, Estes C35, Fakhry S41, Farooqi JI42,43, Fridjonsdottir H44, Gani RA39, Ghafoor Khan A45, Goldis A46, Gottfredsson M47, Gregorcic S48, Hajarizadeh B49,50, Han KH51, Hasan I39, Hashim A52, Horvath G53, Hunyady B54,55, Husni R56, Jafri W57, Jeruma A58,59, Jonasson JG44,60,61, Karlsdottir B62, Kim DY51, Kim YS63, Koutoubi Z64, Lesmana LA39,65, Lim YS66, Löve A47,67, Maimets M68, Makara M69, Malekzadeh R70, Matičič M48, Memon MS71, Merat S70, Mokhbat JE72, Mourad FH6, Muljono DH73,74, Nawaz A75, Nugrahini N76, Priohutomo S77, Qureshi H78, Rassam P40, Razavi H35, Razavi-Shearer D35, Razavi-Shearer K35, Rozentale B58,59, Sadik M71, Saeed K79, Salamat A80, Salupere R68, Sanai FM25, Sanityoso Sulaiman A39, Sayegh RA81, Schmelzer JD35, Sibley A35, Siddiq M82,83, Siddiqui AM84, Sigmundsdottir G85, Sigurdardottir B62, Speiciene D1, Sulaiman A39,86, Sultan MA87, Taha M88, Tarifi H89, Tayyab G90,91, Tolmane I58,59, Ud Din M92, Umar M93,94, Valantinas J1, Videčnik-Zorman J48, Yaghi C81, Yunihastuti E95, Yusuf MA96, Zuberi BF97, Gunter J35.

Author information

1
Centre of Hepatology, Gastroenterology, and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania.
2
Department of Biomechanics, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius, Lithuania.
3
The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.
4
Department of Epidemiology, Infectious Disease Control and Prevention, Hiroshima University Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima, Japan.
5
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Landspitali - The National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
6
Division of Gastroenterology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.
7
Baqiatallah Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Baqiatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
8
Middle East Liver Diseases Centre, Tehran, Iran.
9
Center of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Fundeni Clinical Institute, Bucharest, Romania.
10
Rashid Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, UAE.
11
Department of Liver and Small Bowel Transplantation, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
12
Ziauddin University, Karachi, Pakistan.
13
National Hepatitis Program, Ministry of Public Health, Beirut, Lebanon.
14
Abu Dhabi Health Services Company, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
15
Communicable Diseases Department, Health Authority Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
16
Health Regulation Division, Health Authority Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
17
Ras Al Khaimah Hospital, Ras Al Khaimah, UAE.
18
Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, UAE.
19
Mafraq Hospital, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
20
Hospitals Sector, Ministry of Health, Al-Ain, UAE.
21
Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan.
22
Department of Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
23
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Rashid Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, UAE.
24
Infection Control Department, Pauls Stradins Clinical University Hospital, Riga, Latvia.
25
Liver Disease Research Center, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
26
Gastroenterology and Hepatology Unit, Medical Specialties Department, King Fahad Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
27
Department of Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
28
King Abdulaziz Medical City and King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
29
Department of Medicine, King Saud University Liver Disease Research Center, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
30
Zayed Military Hospital, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
31
Daman National Health Insurance Company, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
32
Seyal Medical Centre, Multan, Pakistan.
33
Health Authority Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
34
Faculty of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.
35
Center for Disease Analysis (CDA), Louisville, CO, USA.
36
Gujranwala Liver Foundation, Siddiq Sadiq Hospital, Gujranwala, Pakistan.
37
Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
38
Al Ain Hospital, Al Ain, UAE.
39
Division of Hepatobiliary, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.
40
Gastroenterology Department, Saint George Hospital, University of Balamand, Balamand, Lebanon.
41
Abu Dhabi Police, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
42
Postgraduate Medical Institute, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, Pakistan.
43
Government Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan.
44
Landspitali - The National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
45
Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan.
46
Clinic of Gastroenterology, University of Medicine 'Victor Babes', Timisoara, Romania.
47
Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Landspitali - The National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
48
Clinic for Infectious Diseases and Febrile Illnesses, University Medical Centre, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
49
The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
50
The Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
51
Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
52
Liver Transplantation, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
53
Hepatology Center of Buda, Budapest, Hungary.
54
Department of Gastroenterology, Somogy County Kaposi Mor Teaching Hospital, Kaposvar, Hungary.
55
First Department of Medicine, University of Pecs, Pecs, Hungary.
56
Lebanese American University Medical Center, Rizk Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon.
57
Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.
58
Department of Hepatology, Infectology Center of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
59
Department of Infectology and Dermatology, Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia.
60
Icelandic Cancer Registry, Reykjavik, Iceland.
61
The Faculty of Medicine, Landspitali - The National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
62
Division of Infectious Disease, Landspitali - The National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
63
Department of Internal Medicine, Soon Chun Hyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon, Korea.
64
Digestive Disease Institute, Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
65
Digestive Disease and GI Oncology Center, Medistra Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.
66
Department of Gastroenterology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
67
Department of Virology, Landspitali - The National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
68
University of Tartu, Tartu University Hospital, Tartu, Estonia.
69
Central Outpatient Clinic, Saint Laszlo Hospital, Budapest, Hungary.
70
Liver and Pancreatobiliary Diseases Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
71
Asian Institute of Medical Science (AIMS), Hyderabad, Pakistan.
72
Division of Infectious Diseases and Division of Clinical Microbiology, Lebanese American University Medical Center Rizk Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon.
73
Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology, Jakarta, Indonesia.
74
Department of Hepatitis & Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
75
Department of Gastroenterology, Fatima Memorial Hospital College of Medicine and Dentistry, Lahore, Pakistan.
76
Sub-Directorate for Gastrointestinal Infection, Diarrheal Diseases, and Hepatitis, Directorate of Direct Transmitted Disease Control, Disease Control & Environmental Health, Ministry of Health, Jakarta, Indonesia.
77
Directorate of Direct Transmitted Disease Control, Disease Control & Environmental Health, Ministry of Health, Jakarta, Indonesia.
78
Pakistan Medical Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan.
79
Khawar Clinic, Sahiwal, Pakistan.
80
Department of Gastroenterology, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
81
Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, School of Medical Science, Saint Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon.
82
Jinnah Memorial Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
83
Yusra Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
84
Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan.
85
Centre for Health Security and Communicable Disease Control, Directorate of Health in Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
86
Klinik Hati Prof. Ali Sulaiman, Jakarta, Indonesia.
87
Health Funding Department, Enaya Insurance Company, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
88
Department of Medicine, Tawam Hospital, Al Ain, UAE.
89
Pharmacy Department, Tawam Hospital, Al Ain, UAE.
90
Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lahore General Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan.
91
Doctors Hospital and Medical Center, Lahore, Pakistan.
92
Pakistan Society of Gastroenterology, Karachi, Pakistan.
93
Department of Medicine, Rawalpindi Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
94
Department of Medicine, Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
95
Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
96
Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital & Research Centre, Lahore, Pakistan.
97
Dow Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan.

Abstract

Detailed, country-specific epidemiological data are needed to characterize the burden of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection around the world. With new treatment options available, policy makers and public health officials must reconsider national strategies for infection control. In this study of 15 countries, published and unpublished data on HCV prevalence, viraemia, genotype, age and gender distribution, liver transplants and diagnosis and treatment rates were gathered from the literature and validated by expert consensus in each country. Viraemic prevalence in this study ranged from 0.2% in Iran and Lebanon to 4.2% in Pakistan. The largest viraemic populations were in Pakistan (7 001 000 cases) and Indonesia (3 187 000 cases). Injection drug use (IDU) and a historically unsafe blood supply were major risk factors in most countries. Diagnosis, treatment and liver transplant rates varied widely between countries. However, comparison across countries was difficult as the number of cases changes over time. Access to reliable data on measures such as these is critical for the development of future strategies to manage the disease burden.

KEYWORDS:

diagnosis; disease burden; epidemiology; hepatitis C; hepatitis C virus; historical; incidence; mortality; prevalence; treatment

PMID:
26513445
DOI:
10.1111/jvh.12475
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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