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Phys Med Biol. 2015 Nov 21;60(22):8741-52. doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/60/22/8741. Epub 2015 Oct 29.

Evaluation of Gafchromic EBT-XD film, with comparison to EBT3 film, and application in high dose radiotherapy verification.

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Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Science, University of Surrey, GU2 7JP, UK. Medical Physics Department, F-Level, Queen Alexandra Hospital, Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Portsmouth, PO6 3LY, UK.


There is renewed interest in film dosimetry for the verification of dose delivery of complex treatments, particularly small fields, compared to treatment planning system calculations. A new radiochromic film, Gafchromic EBT-XD, is available for high-dose treatment verification and we present the first published evaluation of its use. We evaluate the new film for MV photon dosimetry, including calibration curves, performance with single- and triple-channel dosimetry, and comparison to existing EBT3 film. In the verification of a typical 25 Gy stereotactic radiotherapy (SRS) treatment, compared to TPS planned dose distribution, excellent agreement was seen with EBT-XD using triple-channel dosimetry, in isodose overlay, maximum 1.0 mm difference over 200-2400 cGy, and gamma evaluation, mean passing rate 97% at 3% locally-normalised, 1.5 mm criteria. In comparison to EBT3, EBT-XD gave improved evaluation results for the SRS-plan, had improved calibration curve gradients at high doses, and had reduced lateral scanner effect. The dimensions of the two films are identical. The optical density of EBT-XD is lower than EBT3 for the same dose. The effective atomic number for both may be considered water-equivalent in MV radiotherapy. We have validated the use of EBT-XD for high-dose, small-field radiotherapy, for routine QC and a forthcoming multi-centre SRS dosimetry intercomparison.

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