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Environ Sci Technol. 2015 Dec 15;49(24):14579-87. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b03849. Epub 2015 Nov 12.

Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of the Flame Retardant Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate Inhibit Growth of Female Zebrafish and Decrease Fecundity.

Zhu Y1, Ma X1, Su G2,3, Yu L1, Letcher RJ3, Hou J1, Yu H3, Giesy JP3,4,5, Liu C1,6.

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College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University , Wuhan 430070, China.
State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University , Nanjing 210089, China.
Department of Chemistry, Carleton University , Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada.
Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan , Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B3, Canada.
Department of Zoology and Centre for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University , East Lansing, Michigan 48824, United States.
Collaborative Innovation Center for Efficient and Health Production of Fisheries in Hunan Province, Hunan Agriculture University , Changsha 410128, China.


Bioconcentrations of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) in brain, gonad, and liver as well as effects on fecundity and development of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were determined. Zebrafish (1-month old) were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of 29 ± 2.1, 600 ± 21, or 6300 ± 130 ng TDCIPP/L. After 120 days of exposure, TDCIPP accumulated in the brain, gonad, and liver with bioconcentration factors of 460, 38, and 87 in females and 26, 55, and 110 in males, respectively. TDCIPP accumulated to a greater extent in brains of females than those of males. Exposure to 6300 ± 130 ng TDCIPP/L resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) fewer eggs being produced, but the histology of the gonad, plasma concentrations of estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone, and expression of genes involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis were not significantly (P > 0.05) different between individuals exposed to TDCIPP and the unexposed control fish. Exposure to TDCIPP resulted in shorter body length, lighter body mass, and lower gonadal-somatic index in females. These effects were possibly due to down-regulation of expression of genes along the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis. Correlations between the production of eggs and developmental parameters or expression of genes along the GH/IGF axis further suggested that environmentally relevant concentrations of TDCIPP could have adverse effects on reproduction, possibly due to the inhibition of the growth of females.

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