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Diabet Med. 2016 Sep;33(9):1230-9. doi: 10.1111/dme.13014. Epub 2015 Dec 6.

Quality of care in patients with diabetic kidney disease in Asia: The Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation (JADE) Registry.

Author information

  • 1Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
  • 2Asia Diabetes Foundation, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, China.
  • 3Department of Endocrinology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.
  • 4Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China.
  • 5Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China.
  • 6The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangdong, Beijing, China.
  • 7Department of Endocrinology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China.
  • 8Qualigenics Diabetes Centre, Hong Kong SAR, China.
  • 9Alice Ho Nethersole Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, China.
  • 10Dr M.K. Mukhopadhyay's Diabetic Clinic, Kolkata.
  • 11ILS Hospital, Salt Lake, India.
  • 12Hallym University College of Medicine, Gangwon-do, Korea.
  • 13The Catholic University of Korea, Seocho-gu, Korea.
  • 14Heart of Jesus Hospital, San Jose City, Philippines.
  • 15Senor Sto. Nino Hospital, Tarlac, Philippines.
  • 16New Bilibid Prison Hospital, Bureau of Corrections, Muntinlupa, Philippines.
  • 17Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.
  • 18Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam.
  • 19HCMC University of Pharmaceutical and Medicine, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
  • 20Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, China.



Diabetic kidney disease independently predicts cardiovascular disease and premature death. We examined the burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD, defined as an estimated GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) ) and quality of care in a cross-sectional survey of adults (age ≥ 18 years) with Type 2 diabetes across Asia.


The Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation programme is a disease-management programme implemented using an electronic portal that systematically captures clinical characteristics of all patients enrolled. Between July 2007 and December 2012, data on 28 110 consecutively enrolled patients (China: 3415, Hong Kong: 15 196, India: 3714, Korea: 1651, Philippines: 3364, Vietnam: 692, Taiwan: 78) were analysed.


In this survey, 15.9% of patients had CKD, 25.0% had microalbuminuria and 12.5% had macroalbuminuria. Patients with CKD were less likely to achieve HbA1c < 53 mmol/mol (7.0%) (36.0% vs. 42.3%) and blood pressure < 130/80 mmHg (20.8% vs. 35.3%), and were more likely to have retinopathy (26.2% vs. 8.7%), sensory neuropathy (29.0% vs. 7.7%), cardiovascular disease (26.6% vs. 8.7%) and self-reported hypoglycaemia (18.9% vs. 8.2%). Despite high frequencies of albuminuria (74.8%) and dyslipidaemia (93.0%) among CKD patients, only 49.0% were using renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and 53.6% were on statins. On logistic regression, old age, male gender, tobacco use, long disease duration, high HbA1c , blood pressure and BMI, and low LDL cholesterol were independently associated with CKD (all P < 0.05).


The poor control of risk factors, suboptimal use of organ-protective drugs and high frequencies of hypoglycaemia highlight major treatment gaps in patients with diabetic kidney disease in Asia.

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