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Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2016;14(1):23-36. doi: 10.1586/14779072.2016.1107475. Epub 2015 Oct 29.

Transforming cardiac rehabilitation into broad-based healthy lifestyle programs to combat noncommunicable disease.

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a Department of Physical Therapy, Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition and Integrative Physiology Laboratory, College of Applied Science , University of Illinois , Chicago , IL , USA.
b Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, John Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute, Ochsner Clinical School , The University of Queensland School of Medicine , New Orleans , LA , USA.
c Department of Physical Therapy, Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine , University of Miami , Miami , FL , USA.
d Office of Institutional Analytics , University of New Mexico , Albuquerque , NM , USA.
e Cardiology Discipline and Cardiovascular Surgery, Sao Paulo Hospital, Escola Paulista de Medicina , Federal University of Sao Paulo , Sao Paolo , Brazil.
f Department of Human Motion Sciences, Physical Therapy School , Federal University of Sao Paulo , Sao Paolo , Brazil.
g Department of Biomedical and Health Information Sciences, College of Applied Science , University of Illinois , Chicago , IL , USA.
h Cardiopulmonary Physiotherapy Laboratory , Federal University of Sao Carlos , Sao Carlos , Brazil.


The current incidence and prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is currently a cause for great concern on a global scale; future projections are no less disconcerting. Unhealthy lifestyle patterns are at the core of the NCD crisis; physical inactivity, excess body mass, poor nutrition and tobacco use are the primary lifestyle factors that substantially increase the risk of developing one or more NCDs. We have now come to recognize that healthy lifestyle interventions are a medical necessity that should be prescribed to all individuals. Perhaps the most well-established model for healthy lifestyle interventions in the current healthcare model is cardiac rehabilitation. To have any hope of improving the outlook for NCDs on a global scale, what is currently known as cardiac rehabilitation must transform into broad-based healthy lifestyle programing, with a shifted focus on primordial and primary prevention.


Fitness; nutrition; obesity; prevention; smoking cessation

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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