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Environ Technol. 2015;36(23):2919-23. doi: 10.1080/09593330.2014.941943. Epub 2014 Jul 31.

Removal of ammonium from municipal landfill leachate using natural zeolites.

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a Department of Environmental Engineering, Hubei Biomass-Resource Chemistry and Environmental Biotechnology Key Laboratory , Wuhan University , Wuhan 430079 , China.
b Shenzhen Research Institute of Wuhan University , Shenzhen 518057 , China.


Ammonium ion-exchange performance of the natural zeolite was investigated in both batch and column studies. The effects of zeolite dosage, contact time, stirring speed and pH on ammonium removal were investigated in batch experiments. The result showed that ammonium removal efficiency increased with an increase in zeolite dosage from 25 to 150 g/L, and an increase in stirring speed from 200 to 250 r/min. But further increase in zeolite dosage and stirring speed would result in an unpronounced increase of ammonium removal. The optimal pH for the removal of ammonium was found as 7.1. In the column studies, the effect of flow rate was investigated, and the total ammonium removal percentage during 180 min operation time decreased with the flow rate though the ion-exchange capacity varied to a very small extent with the flow rate ranging from 4 to 9 mL/min. The spent zeolite was regenerated by sodium chloride solution and the ammonia removal capacity of zeolite changed little or even increased after three regeneration cycles.


ammonium removal; ion exchange; leachate; treatment; zeolite

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