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Clin Exp Allergy. 2016 Jan;46(1):21-41. doi: 10.1111/cea.12666.

A comprehensive review of the nasal microbiome in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS).

Author information

Allergy and Immunology Section, Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.
Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.
Division of Allergy-Immunology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.


Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has been known as a disease with strong infectious and inflammatory components for decades. The recent advancement in methods identifying microbes has helped implicate the airway microbiome in inflammatory respiratory diseases such as asthma and COPD. Such studies support a role of resident microbes in both health and disease of host tissue, especially in the case of inflammatory mucosal diseases. Identifying interactive events between microbes and elements of the immune system can help us to uncover the pathogenic mechanisms underlying CRS. Here we provide a review of the findings on the complex upper respiratory microbiome in CRS in comparison with healthy controls. Furthermore, we have reviewed the defects and alterations of the host immune system that interact with microbes and could be associated with dysbiosis in CRS.

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