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Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2016 Feb;26(1):60-6. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1566094. Epub 2015 Oct 28.

Growth Assessment and the Risk of Growth Retardation in Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study from the Japanese Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Study Group.

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Department of Pediatric Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.
Department of Pediatric Surgery, Reproductive and Developmental Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
Division of Neonatology, Center for Maternal-Neonatal Care, Nagoya University Hospital, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan.
Department of Pediatric Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Yamadaoka, Osaka, Japan.
Division of Neonatology, Department of Maternal and Perinatal Medicine, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.
Department of Pediatric Surgery, Kobe Children's Hospital, Kobe, Japan.
Department of Pediatric Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.
Department of Pediatric Surgery, Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Izumi, Japan.



Little information exists about the physical growth of patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). This study aimed to assess the growth of patients with CDH during long follow-up periods, and to identify growth retardation (GR) risk factors.


A multicenter retrospective observational study was conducted in 2013. Of the 228 patients with CDH born between 2006 and 2010, 182 (79.8%) survived to discharge, and 174 cases were included in the study. Body weights and heights were measured at 1.5, 3, and 6 years of age. GR was defined as a Z-score relating to the weight or height of < - 2.0. Cases with GR at 1.5, 3, or 6 years of age comprised the GR group. The clinical variables of the GR and non-GR groups were compared using univariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted successively on the factors that were significant at p < 0.01 in the univariate analysis and had low correlations with other factors (r < 0.7). The numerical data were divided into two groups based on a cutoff value that was calculated from a receiver operating characteristic curve.


The GR group comprised 35 cases (22.7%). The rates of GR at 1.5, 3, and 6 years of age were 19.5 (26/133), 14.4 (16/111), and 13.5% (5/37), respectively. The body weight Z-scores improved in cases with GR between the ages of 1.5 and 3 years (p = 0.036). As the patients aged, the wasting type of GR decreased in frequency (31, 0, and 0% at 1.5, 3, and 6 years of age, respectively) and the stunting type of GR increased in frequency (27, 31, and 100% at 1.5, 3, and 6 years of age, respectively). The univariate analysis showed that birth weight and height, liver-up, large defect size of the diaphragm, use of nitric oxide, patch repair, long hospital stay, home oxygen treatment (HOT), and vasodilator administration at discharge were significant risk factors of GR. The multivariate analysis determined that a birth weight of < 2,698 g (odds ratio [OR] = 5.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.1-16.8, p < 0.001) and HOT (OR = 5.8, 95%CI = 1.6-23.8, p = 0.007) were significant risk factors for GR.


GR was observed in 22.7% of the CDH survivors. Body weight improved between 1.5 and 3 years of age in the GR cases, but some patients developed chronic malnutrition via acute malnutrition. Low birth weight and the need for HOT were GR risk factors. Aggressive management of acute malnutrition may improve the growth of patients with CDH.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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