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Curr Dev Disord Rep. 2015 Sep;2(3):175-186. Epub 2015 Jun 27.

Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE): Review of Evidence and Guidelines for Assessment.

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Center for Behavioral Teratology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92120.


The effects of prenatal alcohol use have been well documented. In this review, we discuss the inclusion of Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE) as a condition for further study in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5). We present a review of the evidence for impairment in three domains highlighted in ND-PAE: neurocognitive functioning, self2 regulation, and adaptive functioning. In addition, we provide guidelines for clinical assessment of each domain. When considering ND-PAE, it is essential to obtain as comprehensive an assessment as possible, including multidisciplinary/multimethod assessment of the individual by a qualified team. It is our aim to provide clinicians with a useful reference for assessing ND-PAE and highlight important guidelines to be followed when conducting neuropsychological assessment.


Assessment; Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders; Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS); Neuropsychological testing; Prenatal alcohol exposure; diagnosis

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