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Am J Bot. 2015 Nov;102(11):1757-79. doi: 10.3732/ajb.1500204. Epub 2015 Oct 27.

Anatomy of fleshy fruits in the monocots.

Author information

1
The New York Botanical Garden, 2900 Southern Blvd., Bronx, New York 10458-5126 USA Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, Maringá, Paraná 87020-900 Brazil tmarcela@gmail.com.
2
The New York Botanical Garden, 2900 Southern Blvd., Bronx, New York 10458-5126 USA Department of Biology, Oberlin College, 173 W Lorain St, Oberlin, Ohio 44074 USA.
3
The New York Botanical Garden, 2900 Southern Blvd., Bronx, New York 10458-5126 USA.

Abstract

PREMISE OF THE STUDY:

An anatomical and developmental study of distantly related fleshy fruits in the monocots was undertaken to better understand the evolution of baccate fruits in the monocot clade as a whole. We studied 14 species with fleshy fruits spanning the Alismatales, Arecales, Asparagales, Commelinales, Dioscoreales, Liliales, and Poales to determine various mechanisms through which baccate fruits attain fleshiness at maturity.

METHODS:

Flowers and fruits of various stages were collected, sectioned, stained, and examined using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

KEY RESULTS:

Three basic pathways for attaining fleshiness were identified within the species examined (true berries, with a uniform pericarp; typical drupes, with an endocarp differentiated by the presence of stony pyrenes; and specialized drupes, involving mesocarp and endocarp differentiated by stone pyrenes). Furthermore, developmental characters differentiating basic fruit types were identified.

CONCLUSIONS:

Fleshy fruits in the monocots do not develop through a single shared pathway, indicating that fleshiness has evolved multiple times within the clade.

KEYWORDS:

berries; capsules; drupes; fruit anatomy; fruit development; monocots

PMID:
26507114
DOI:
10.3732/ajb.1500204
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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