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Acad Med. 2015 Nov;90(11 Suppl):S91-7. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000000901.

From Cheerleader to Coach: The Developmental Progression of Bedside Teachers in Giving Feedback to Early Learners.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Medical students learn clinical skills at the bedside from teaching clinicians, who often learn to teach by teaching. Little is known about the process of becoming an effective clinical teacher. Understanding how teaching skills and approaches change with experience may help tailor faculty development for new teachers. Focusing on giving feedback to early learners, the authors asked: What is the developmental progression of clinician-teachers as they learn to give clinical skills feedback to medical students?

METHOD:

This qualitative study included longitudinal interviews with clinician-teachers over five years in a new clinical skills teaching program for preclinical medical students. Techniques derived from grounded theory were used for initial analyses. The current study focused on one theme identified in initial analyses: giving feedback to students. Transcript passages were organized by interview year, coded, and discussed in year clusters; thematic codes were compared and emergent codes developed.

RESULTS:

Themes related to giving feedback demonstrated a dyadic structure: characteristic of less experienced teachers versus characteristic of experienced teachers. Seven dominant dyadic themes emerged, including teacher as cheerleader versus coach, concern about student fragility versus understanding resilience, and focus on creating a safe environment versus challenging students within a safe environment.

CONCLUSIONS:

With consistent teaching, clinical teachers demonstrated progress in giving feedback to students in multiple areas, including understanding students' developmental trajectory and needs, developing tools and strategies, and adopting a dynamic, challenging, inclusive team approach. Ongoing teaching opportunities with targeted faculty development may help improve clinician-teachers' feedback skills and approaches.

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PMID:
26505108
DOI:
10.1097/ACM.0000000000000901
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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