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Psychol Assess. 2016 Aug;28(8):917-28. doi: 10.1037/pas0000232. Epub 2015 Oct 26.

Bifactor latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and first-order latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms.

Author information

1
Department of Child Welfare and Studies, Sookmyung Women's University.
2
Department of Psychology, Washington State University.
3
Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University.
4
Division of Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Psychology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center.

Abstract

The objective was to determine if the latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms is best explained by a general disruptive behavior factor along with specific inattention (IN), hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), and ODD factors (a bifactor model) whereas the latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms is best explained by a first-order factor independent of the bifactor model of ADHD/ODD. Parents' (n = 703) and teachers' (n = 366) ratings of SCT, ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI, and ODD symptoms on the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory (CADBI) in a community sample of children (ages 5-13; 55% girls) were used to evaluate 4 models of symptom organization. Results indicated that a bifactor model of ADHD/ODD symptoms, in conjunction with a separate first-order SCT factor, was the best model for both parent and teacher ratings. The first-order SCT factor showed discriminant validity with the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factors in the bifactor model. In addition, higher scores on the SCT factor predicted greater academic and social impairment, even after controlling for the general disruptive behavior and 3 specific factors. Consistent with predictions from the trait-impulsivity etiological model of externalizing liability, a single, general disruptive behavior factor accounted for nearly all common variance in ADHD/ODD symptoms, whereas SCT symptoms represented a factor different from the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factor. These results provide additional support for distinguishing between SCT and ADHD-IN. The study also demonstrates how etiological models can be used to predict specific latent structures of symptom organization. (PsycINFO Database Record.

PMID:
26502205
DOI:
10.1037/pas0000232
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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