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Med Princ Pract. 2016;25 Suppl 2:11-7. doi: 10.1159/000439307. Epub 2015 Oct 27.

Role of BioResponse 3,3'-Diindolylmethane in the Treatment of Human Prostate Cancer: Clinical Experience.

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Department of Pathology, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Mich., USA.


Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) progression after androgen deprivation therapy shows upregulated expression of androgen receptor (AR) splice variants, induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotypes and enhanced stem cell characteristics, all of which are associated with resistance to enzalutamide. Since there is no curative treatment for CRPC, innovative treatments are urgently needed. In our recent study, we found that resistance to enzalutamide was partly due to deregulated expression of microRNAs such as miR-34a, miR-124, miR-27b, miR-320 and let-7, which play important roles in regulating AR and stem cell marker gene expression that appears to be linked with resistance to enzalutamide. Importantly, we found that BioResponse 3,3'-diindolylmethane (BR-DIM) treatment in vitro and in vivo caused downregulation in the expression of wild-type AR. The AR splice variants, Lin28B and EZH2, appear to be deregulated through the re-expression of let-7, miR-27b, miR-320 and miR-34a in human prostate cancer (PCa). BR-DIM administered in clinical trials was well tolerated, and 93% of patients had detectable prostatic DIM levels. The inhibitory effects of BR-DIM on AR and AR target gene such as prostate-specific antigen were also observed in the clinical trial. Our preclinical and clinical studies provide the scientific basis for a 'proof-of-concept' clinical trial in CRPC patients treated with enzalutamide in combination with BR-DIM. This strategy could be expanded in future clinical trials in patients with PCa to determine whether or not they could achieve a better treatment outcome which could be partly mediated by delaying or preventing the development of CRPC.

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